1. Specifications For Bale Ties

General requirements for bale ties: Defines tie - length, types and other physical standards.

1.1. General Requirements  

1.1.1. Length:

1.1.1.1. Gin Universal Density Bales: Bale ties used on gin universal density bales pressed in a 20-21 inch wide by 54-55 inch long press box shall be 87 to 89 inches in length, unless otherwise specified in Section 1.2.

1.1.1.2. Gin Standard Density Bales: Bale ties used on gin standard density bales pressed in a 20-21 inch wide by 54-55 inch long press box shall be 90-93 inches in length, unless otherwise specified in Section 1.2.1

Bale Tie1.1.1.3. Length Measurement: Length of wire ties as specified in Section 1.1.1 are measured after loops are formed from end to end excluding overlap, as indicated in the figure below.

1.1.2. Rust Inhibitor: All ties and fasteners must be coated or furnished with a rust inhibitor.

1.1.3. Number of Ties Required:

1.1.3.1. Standard density bales must have not less than 8 ties, except that bales tied with controlled slip steel strap connections, PET plastic strap, 0.135-inch diameter galvanized wire with a twist connection, 0.148-inch or 0.162-inch diameter wire with a fabricated interlocking connection must have not less than 6 ties.

1.1.3.2. Universal density bales must have not less than 8 ties, except that bales tied with controlled slip steel strap connections, PET plastic strap, 0.135-inch diameter galvanized wire with a twist connection, 0.148-inch or 0.162-inch diameter wire with a fabricated interlocking connection must have not less than 6 ties.

1.1.4. COA Required: All tie manufacturers, fabricators and/or distributors are responsible for applicable provisions for bale ties included in 1. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BALE TIES and 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA).


1.2. Approved Materials

1.2.1. Cold Rolled High Tensile Steel Strapping: The suppliers' name or trademark must be printed or embossed on every 36 inches of strapping.

1.2.1.1. For Use on Gin Standard Density and Gin Universal Density Bales:

1.2.1.1.1. Fixed-Seal (Triple Notch) Connection: The strapping shall have a minimum width of 0.75 inch, minimum thickness of 0.031 inch, minimum weight of 1 pound per 12.7 linear feet of strapping and minimum breaking strength of 3,200 pounds with a joint strength not less than 2,720 pounds for gin standard density bales or 4,000 pounds with a joint strength of not less than 3,400 pounds for gin universal density bales.

1.2.1.1.2. Controlled-Slip Connection: The connection should be achieved by heavily crimping both seal and straps. The connection shall permit up to 5 inches of relative movement at a minimum of 2,000 pounds of initial frictional force, and a minimum of 1,700 pounds of ultimate dynamic frictional force. Either an 8 or 6 strap configuration can be used as long as the tied loop length does not exceed 86 inches for universal density bales and 90 inches for standard density bales. The strapping shall have a minimum width of 0.75 inch, a minimum thickness of 0.025 inch, a minimum weight of 1 pound per 15.7 linear feet, a minimum breaking strength of 3,400 pounds, and a maximum of 5% elongation in a 6-inch sample. Controlled-slip strap shall be fabricated in a NAFTA country.

1.2.1.2. Certification of Steel Strap Required: All steel strap manufacturers shall satisfy applicable requirements in section 4.1 Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. The certification shall also show the name and address of the wire tie manufacturer and contain a quality control code that will permit the ties to be identified. In addition steel strap manufacturers shall certify to customers that the straps furnished have been fabricated in a NAFTA country and meet the material specifications herein.

1.2.2. Wire Ties: Ties must be manufactured from wire, which conforms to ASTM A510. Manufacturers shall follow a regular procedure of testing and inspection. Break tests shall be tested within a range from one-fourth inch to 5 inches per minute of elongation. Torsion testing must be performed according to sections 1.2.2.2.2.2, 1.2.2.2.2.3.2 and 1.2.2.2.5.2.4.

1.2.2.1. For Use on Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:

1.2.2.1.1. High Tensile Steel 0.148 Inch Diameter 200 Ksi Wire: In the portion of the wire in which the connections are formed, ties shall be not smaller than 0.148 inch in diameter (9 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0172 square inches (minus 5% tolerance). The breaking strength of the wire must be not less than 3,400 pounds with a joint strength of not less than 2,100 pounds. A minimum of eight wires shall be used. The joints must be placed on the crowns or sample sides of the bales.

1.2.2.1.2. High Tensile Steel 0.140 Inch Diameter 240 Ksi Wire: The full diameter of wire shall not be smaller than 0.140 inch (approximately 9 1/2 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0154 square inches. A minimum of eight wires shall be used. The joints must be placed on the crowns or sample sides of the bales.

1.2.2.1.2.1. Joint Strength: The minimum joint strength must be not less than 2310 pounds.

1.2.2.1.2.2. Torsion Requirement: Torsion testing must be conducted in accordance with ASTM Standard A 938. Total turns to fracture shall not be less than 16 turns in a 10-inch test length. Tests shall be conducted on round wire, not waisted wire.

1.2.2.1.3. High Tensile Steel 0.148 inch Diameter 240 Ksi Wire: In the portion of the wire in which the connections are formed, ties shall be no smaller than 0.148 inches in diameter (9 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0172 square inches (minus 5% tolerance). The length of the tie must not be greater than 88 inches for gin universal density bales or must not be greater than 92 inches for gin standard density bales. The joints must be placed on the crown or sample side of the bale. The six required ties must be spaced along the bale length with no less than 9 inches between adjacent ties.

1.2.2.1.3.1. Joint Strength: The minimum joint strength must be not less than 2400 pounds.

1.2.2.1.3.2. Torsion Requirement: Torsion test must be conducted in accordance with ASTM Standard A 938. Total turns to fracture shall not be less than 16 turns in a 10-inch test length. Tests shall be conducted on round, not waisted, wire.

1.2.2.1.4. High Tensile Steel 0.155 Inch Diameter 220 Ksi Wire: In the portion of the wire in which the connections are formed, ties shall be no smaller than 0.155 inches in diameter (8 1/2 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0189 square inches (minus 5% tolerance). The length of the tie must not be greater than 88 inches for gin universal density bales or must not be greater than 92 inches for gin standard density bales. The breaking strength of the wire must be not less than 4,200 pounds. The joints must be placed on the crown or sample side of the bale. The six required ties must be spaced alongthe bale length with no less than 9 inches between adjacent ties.

1.2.2.1.4.1. Joint Strength: The minimum joint strength must be not less than 2500 pounds.

1.2.2.1.4.2. Torsion Requirement: Torsion test must be conducted in accordance with ASTM Standard A938. Total turns to fracture shall not be less than 16 turns in a 10-inch test length. Tests shall be conducted on round, not waisted, wire.

1.2.2.1.5. High Tensile Steel 0.162 Inch Diameter 200 Ksi Wire: In the portion of the wire in which the connections are formed, ties shall be not smaller than 0.162 inch in diameter (approximately 8 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0206 square inches (minus 5% tolerance). The length of tie must be not greater than 88 inches for gin universal density bales and 92 inches for gin standard density bales. The breaking strength of the wire must be not less than 4,350 pounds with a joint strength of not less than 2,600 pounds. The joints must be placed on the crowns or sample sides of the bales. The six required ties must be spaced along the bale length with no less than 9 inches between adjacent ties.

1.2.2.1.6. Automatically Applied Galvanized Wire: Twist knots shall be fabricated at the gin using Ultra Twist® Wire Tying System.

1.2.2.1.6.1. Ultra Twist® Wire tying system: The Ultra Twist® Wire tying system originally approved for incorporation into these specifications is considered to be a holistic method in which both the machinery device and the specific wire materials as tested by the JCIBPC are integral components of the system.  Wire supplied by manufacturers other than the one originally testing the system, or otherwise qualified, may supply wire for use in the Ultra Twist® device after submission of wire test data meeting basic requirements as specified in this specification and upon successful completion of a JCIBPC-sanctioned experimental test program lasting at least one ginning season or until which time the alternative wire proves its compatibility with the Ultra Twist® wire tying device.

1.2.2.1.6.2. Galvanized 0.1350 Steel Wire: The full diameter of the wire shall be no smaller than 0.1350 inches (10 gauge) or equivalent cross-sectional area of 0.0143 square inches (minus 5% tolerance).

1.2.2.1.6.2.1. Length: The length of the tie must not be greater than 88 inches for gin universal density bales or must not be greater than 92 inches for gin standard density bales.

1.2.2.1.6.2.2. Galvanization: Wire will have a galvanized coating density of 0.18 ounces/square foot, with a tolerance of +/- 0.05 ounces/square foot.

1.2.2.1.6.2.3. Strength: The average breaking strength of the wire must be not less than 2,931 pounds. The average minimum joint strength must be not less than 2578 pounds

1.2.2.1.6.2.4. Torsion Requirement: Torsion test must be conducted in accordance with ASTM Standard A 938. Total turns to fracture shall not be less than 12 turns in a 10-inch test length. Tests shall be conducted on round, not waisted, wire.

1.2.2.1.6.2.5. Placement: The twist knot must be placed in recesses on the hard or flat side of the bale. The six required wire ties must be spaced along the bale length with no less than 9 inches between adjacent ties.

1.2.2.1.6.2.6. Formation of Recesses or Channels: Recesses or channels shall be created by the installation of vertical steel flat stock or other steel bars on the inside of gin press boxes.

1.2.2.1.6.2.6.1. Recesses or channels shall be created by the installation of vertical steel flat stock or other steel bars on the inside of gin press boxes.

1.2.2.1.6.2.6.2. Gin operators should be advised that improper installation of steel bars might create potential risks to bale or fiber quality, equipment or workers. Therefore, ginners are urged to consult their respective gin press manufacturers prior to any addition or modification to the gin press.

1.2.2.2. Certification of Wire Ties Required: Each bundle or coil of wire shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. In addition each bundle or coil of wire shall bear a certification that the wire ties have been manufactured according to the specifications for Bale Packaging Materials as published by the JCIBPC. The certification shall also show the name and address of the wire tie manufacturer and contain a quality control code that will permit the ties to be identified to the 2,000-pound lot and/or wire carrier. Wire ties shall be fabricated within a NAFTA country.

1.2.3. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastic Strapping for Use on Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:2 Ties made from polyethylene terephthalate, here after referred to as PET, plastic strapping must be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D3950. PET plastic strapping joints shall be fabricated at the gin using patented z-weld friction technology, P600 or P361 friction weld technology. The strap manufacturer's name or trademark must be printed or embossed on every 36 inches of strapping.

1.2.3.1. Patented z-weld friction technology, P600 or P361 friction weld technology strapping systems: The patented z-weld friction technology, P600 or P361 friction weld technology strapping systems originally approved for incorporation into these specifications are considered to be holistic methods which considers both the machinery device and the specific strapping materials as tested by the JCIBPC as integral components of each system tested. PET strapping materials supplied by manufacturers other than the ones originally testing the systems, or otherwise certified, may supply strapping for use in the patented z-weld friction technology®, P600 or P361 friction weld technology® strapping devices after submission of strap test data meeting basic physical requirements as described in this specification and upon successful completion of a JCIBPC-sanctioned experimental test program lasting at least one ginning season or until which time the alternative strapping proves its compatibility with the specific device on which it was tested.

1.2.3.2. Placement: Plastic strapping must be placed in recesses or channels on the flat sides of the bale. These recesses or channels provide a measure of protection of tying materials from handling forces and maintain integrity of bale cover fabrics. The six required ties must be spaced uniformly along the bale length. The P600 weld shall be placedon the crown (round side) of the bale.  The P361 weld may be placed on the flat side of the bale when used in conjunction with lift box style bale presses.

1.2.3.2.1. Recesses or Channels:

1.2.3.2.1.1. Formation of Recesses or Channels: Recesses or channels shall be created by the installation of vertical steel flat stock or other steel bars on the inside of gin press boxes.

1.2.3.2.1.2. Advisory and Disclaimer: Gin operators should be advised that improper installation of steel bars might create potential risks to bale or fiber quality, equipment or workers. Therefore, ginners are urged to consult their respective gin press manufacturers prior to any addition or modification to the gin press.

1.2.3.3. General:

1.2.3.3.1 Color: The strap must be translucent green or opaque green.

1.2.3.3.2. Gauge: The average strap gauge or thickness when machines use the z-weld friction technology, the P600 friction weld technology or the P361 friction weld technologyshall be not less than 0.055 inch.

1.2.3.3.3. Gauge Tolerance: The thickness of any 2 evenly spaced points across the width of a strap must be within plus or minus 4 percent of the average gauge thickness for that strap.

1.2.3.3.4. Width: The average width shall be not less than 0.75 inch.

1.2.3.3.5. Width Tolerance: The range of any 2 evenly spaced points along the length of a strap must be within plus or minus 4 percent of the average width for that strap.

1.2.3.3.6. Break Strength: The average break strength must be not less than 2400 pounds. The minimum break strength must be not less than 2250 pounds.

1.2.3.3.7. Elongation:

1.2.3.3.7.1. Elongation at Break Strength: The elongation at break must be not less than 12 percent nor greater than 16 percent.

1.2.3.3.7.2. Elongation at 1000 Pounds Tension: The elongation at 1000 pounds tension should be not greater than 4 percent.

1.2.3.3.8. Joint Strength: The average joint strength must be not less than 2200 pounds. The minimum joint strength must be not less than 1950 pounds.

1.2.3.3.9. Tare Weight: Tare weight shall be not less than 1 pound per 6 straps.

1.2.3.3.10. Strap Length: Each strap shall be not greater than 86 inches in length when used with 54 inch by 20 inch presses.

1.2.3.4. Inspection and Certification Requirements:

1.2.3.4.1. Responsibility for Inspection: The strap manufacturer and the supplier are both responsible for performance of all inspection requirements as specified herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

1.2.3.4.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

1.2.3.4.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the strap manufacturer or supplier.

1.2.3.4.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

1.2.3.4.4.1. Submission of Samples: All manufacturers of PET strapping must submit samples to a private testing laboratory selected by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all prescribed specifications.

1.2.3.4.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The strap manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that straps are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards for PET plastic described in sections 1.2.3.1 through 1.2.3.11.

1.2.3.4.4.3. Certification of Strapping Furnished: PET plastic strapping manufacturers and/or suppliers shall certify to customers that the strap furnished has been manufactured within a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale ties and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list. Each coil of strapping shall bear a certification that the PET plastic strapping has been manufactured according to the specifications for Bale Packaging Materials as published by the JCIBPC. The certification shall also show the name and address of the plastic strapping manufacturer and contain a quality control code that will permit the strapping to be identified to the coil or strapping carrier. In addition PET plastic strapping manufacturers shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. Strapping manufacturers and/or suppliers shall certify to customers that the strap furnished has been manufactured in a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale ties and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list.

1.2.3.5. Test Methods for PET Plastic Strapping:

1.2.3.5.1. Sample Size: Each sample size of PET plastic strapping will consist of twenty straps 86 inches in length randomly selected from production lines.

1.2.3.5.2. Gauge and Gauge Tolerance: The gauge and gauge tolerance shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D374.

1.2.3.5.3. Break Strength and Elongation: The break strength, elongation at break and elongation at 1000 pounds tension shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D882 and ASTM D3950.

1.2.3.5.4. Joint Strength:

1.2.3.5.4.1. Preparation of Specimens: The joints shall be formed by either patented z-weld friction technology, P600 or P361 friction weld technology.

1.2.3.5.4.2. Testing: The joint strength shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D882 and ASTM D3950.

Footnotes:

1. Acknowledging that the Universal Bale Committee of the National Cotton Council in 1974 defined that Gin Universal bales be produced in press boxes of 54-55 inches long and 20-21 inches wide; That no bales of cotton are produced in "short bale" press boxes having length dimensions of 50-51 inches; That "short bales" do not meet the density definition of bale weight divided by bale volume and published annually since 1983 by the Joint Cotton Industry Bale Packaging Committee and subsequently adopted by the USDA as requirements for CCC loan eligibility; It is therefore recommended that for all future bale press installations that only presses meeting industry requirements of 54-55 inch length and 20-21 inch width dimensions will be acceptable as gin universal density.

2. Users of polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic materials are advised that best performance is for use in gins where there are commitments of ginners to press bales in accordance with platen separation, lint distribution, tie length and moisture management recommendations as included in industry educational materials of the Joint Cotton Industry Bale Packaging Committee along with other quality assurance procedures as required by polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic manufacturers. While any tying or strapping material may be damaged, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic materials are especially subject to damage due to multiple handling, re-concentration or certification, and may be subject to subsequent repairs to restore bales to merchantable conditions and mill acceptability.