2. Specifications For Bagging

General Requirements for bagging. List, specific requirements, and descriptions of approved materials

2.1. General Requirements

2.1.1. Bagging Material Condition: All bagging material must be clean, in sound condition, and of sufficient strength to adequately protect the cotton. The material must not have salt or other corrosive material added and must not contain sisal or other hard fiber or any other material that will contaminate or adversely affect cotton as determined by the JCIBPC. Bagging which has been cut to obtain samples must be patched prior to shipment from warehouse using an industry recommended material and technique, so that the bale is fully covered.

2.1.2. Fire Tags, Hog Rings, Bale Tag Wires: Metal fire tags, typically placed on bands or wires, should not be used unless required by governing state laws or an applicable insurance policy. Hog rings, metal staples or other types of metal should not be used to close bale heads or secure bagging in any way. However, small gauge wires on bale tags are acceptable.

2.1.3. COA Required: All bagging manufacturers, fabricators, importers and/or distributors are responsible for complying with all applicable provisions for bale bags under 2. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BAGGING and the COA provisions for bale bags in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA).


2.2. Approved Materials.

2.2.1. Cotton Bagging:

2.2.1.1. General:

2.2.1.1.1. Weight: Bagging made from 100 percent cotton must weigh not less than 7.7 ounces per square yard with a minimum weight of 3.1 pounds for gin standard density bales, and 3 pounds for gin universal density bales at 8.5 percent moisture content (not moisture regain).

2.2.1.1.2. Woven: The bagging must contain not less than 120 warp yarns (plied or single per 12 inches of bagging of a size equal to or larger than the weft (filling) yarns and must contain not less than 78 weft (filling) yarns (plied or single) per 12 inches of bagging.

2.2.1.1.3. Warp Knitted: The bagging must be constructed with not less than two guide bars and must contain not less than five wales per inch and not less than six courses per inch. All yarns (plied or single) must be form connected with each other. The bagging must have stabilized construction with elongation or stretch not less than 15 percent or more than 30 percent. Variation in tensile strength in wale and course direction must not exceed 20 percent. The bagging must have a minimum bursting strength of 75 pounds.

2.2.1.2. Bags for Use on Gin Standard Density and Gin Universal Density:

2.2.1.2.1. Material: The bagging may be constructed of woven cotton fabric meeting specifications in Section 2.2.1.1.2 or warp knitted cotton fabric meeting specifications in Section 2.2.1.1.3. For bags made of warp knitted fabric, bags may be constructed with two panels sewn on each side to form a bag or form a single folded pattern. For bags made of woven cotton fabric, bags must be spiral-sewn from fabric a minimum of 60 inches in width.

2.2.1.2.2. Size: The bag size must be tailored to individual bale sizes at each location. Bags shall fit bales tightly but must be large enough to minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads.

2.2.1.2.3. Seams: Seams must be sewn with a type SSa-1 (flat), SSn-1 (folded) or LSa-1 (overlap) seam, type 401 stitch, minimum 6 stitches per inch with 4/12 or 5/12 cotton thread. Sewn seams at bottom of bags must be a minimum of three-fourths inch from edges and be of type SSa-1 (flat).

2.2.1.3. Identification Markings:

2.2.1.3.1. Bag Markings: Each cotton bale bag must have legibly printed or stenciled with ink of a visible color no less than once on each bag the names and trademarks or codes for each of the following: (1) the bag manufacturer (the company fabricating the bags), (2) the bag importer (the company bringing finished bags into the U.S. if the bag was not fabricated in the U.S.), and/or (3) the bag distributor (the company offering the bags for sale) and (4) the fabric weight. The fabric weight for cotton bale bags may not be less than 7.7 ounces per square yard (denoted on the bag as "7.7 oz/sq yd"). The identification markings shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. The bag manufacturer or importer shall register the name or the trademark with the JCIBPC.

2.2.1.4. Inspection and Certification: Bag manufacturers and importers shall follow a regular procedure of testing and inspection.

2.2.1.4.1. Responsibility for Inspection: Bag manufacturers and importers shall follow a regular procedure of testing and inspection. The bag manufacturer, importer and distributor of woven and knitted bale bags are responsible for performance of all inspection requirements herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.1.4.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

2.2.1.4.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the fabric or bag importer registering the trademark.

2.2.1.4.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

2.2.1.4.4.1. Submission of Samples: Bag importers and/or distributors must submit samples to a testing laboratory approved by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all applicable specifications.

2.2.1.4.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The bag manufacturer, importer and/or distributor shall be responsible for insuring that fabrics are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards. The bag manufacturer, importer and/or distributor shall insure that all specifications for spiral-sewn cotton bale bags are met.

2.2.1.4.4.3. Certification of Fabric Furnished is required. Bag manufacturers and importers shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List.

2.2.1.5. Test Methods for Cotton Bagging:

2.2.1.5.1. Sample Size: Each sample of cotton bagging selected for testing will consist of one pattern of either bag and panel combination, sewn bag, or two panels.

2.2.1.5.2. Length: The length of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the length measured along both selvages for cotton panels. The length of the sample will be the average of the two measurements rounded to the nearest inch. Measurements will be made on the sample in equilibrium with standard atmospheric conditions as specified in ASTM D1776.

2.2.1.5.3. Width: Sample width will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device and will include the selvages. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the measurements made perpendicular to the lengths (selvages in the case of panels). Three width measurements will be taken on each sample. One measurement will be made at the center of the sample and two other measurements will be approximately 12 inches in from each end of the sample. The average of the three measurements, rounded to the nearest inch, will be the width. Measurements will be made on the sample in equilibrium with standard atmospheric conditions as specified in ASTM D1776.

2.2.1.5.4. Weight of Bagging: The weight of bagging will be determined by weighing on suitably accurate scales, and the weight per pattern will be determined to the nearest one-tenth pound. Several patterns (or bales of bagging patterns) may be weighed simultaneously and the weight averaged. The weight for cotton bagging will be calculated on the basis of 8.5 percent moisture content (not moisture regain).

2.2.1.5.5. Woven Cotton Bagging:

2.2.1.5.5.1. Warp Yarn Count: The number of warp ends in the width of the sample including the selvages will be counted at each end of the sample. The average of the two counts will be divided by the width, as determined above. This figure will be multiplied by 12 to determine warp yarns per 12 inches of bagging.

2.2.1.5.5.2. Weft (Filling) Yarn Count: The number of weft (filling) yarns over a measured length of 36 inches on each sample of woven cotton bagging will be counted. The number counted divided by 3 will be the weft (filling) yarn count per 12 inches.

2.2.1.5.6. Warp Knitted Cotton Bagging:

2.2.1.5.6.1. Wale Count of Warp Knitted Cotton Bagging: The number of wales or ribs running lengthwise of the sample will be counted over a measured width (relaxed state) of 12 inches on each sample. The number counted divided by 12 will be the wale count per inch.

2.2.1.5.6.2. Course Count of Warp Knitted Cotton Bagging: The number of courses or loops which form a line horizontal to the wales or ribs will be counted over a measured length (relaxed state) of 12 inches on each sample of warp knitted cotton bagging. The number counted divided by 12 will be the course count per inch.

2.2.1.5.6.3. Elongation: Elongation or stretch properties of warp knitted cotton bagging will be tested on one pound per inch static load using methods as specified in ASTM D2594E.

2.2.1.5.6.4. Bursting Strength: Bursting strength will be tested on an approved type of constant rate of traverse machine equipped with a bursting attachment (ball burst) as specified in ASTM D3887.


2.2.2. Polyethylene (PE) Film Bagging:3

2.2.2.1. General: Polyethylene, hereafter referred to as PE, film bag shall be extruded and fabricated in a NAFTA country from virgin resin supplied by NAFTA-country resin manufacturers, for use on gin standard density and gin universal density bales and bales compressed at a warehouse.

2.2.2.1.1. Type:

2.2.2.1.1.1. Linear Low Density: The PE film bag must be 100% linear low density polyethylene from a copolymer of ethylene and octene 1 base, hexene base or metallocene resin.

2.2.2.1.1.2. Tri-Extruded: The PE film bag must be only a combination of linear low density polyethylene from a copolymer of ethylene and octene 1 base, hexene base, or metallocene base resin, high molecular weight high density polyethylene resin, and fractional melt, low density polyethylene resin.

2.2.2.1.2. Color: The PE film bag must be clear, light brown, or yellow tinted. If the PE film bag is light brown, the bag must contain a minimum of 5% pigment for color.

2.2.2.1.3. Gauge: The average gauge shall be not less than 6 mil.

2.2.2.1.4. Gauge Tolerance: The range of any 20 evenly spaced points around the width (traverse or cross direction) of a PE film bag must be within plus or minus 10 percent of the average gauge for that bag.

2.2.2.1.5. Tensile Strength: For machine (length) direction the tensile strength must be not less than 38.3 pounds per inch (6,380 pounds per square inch for a 6 mil material), and for traverse (cross) direction not less than 33.0 pounds per inch (5,500 pounds per square inch for a 6 mil material).

 2.2.2.1.6. Elongation: For both machine (length) and traverse (cross) direction the recommended elongation is 800 percent.

2.2.2.1.7. Tear Resistance: The material shall have a minimum tear resistance of 300 grams/mil in the machine (length) direction and 400 grams/mil in the traverse (cross) direction.

2.2.2.1.8. Impact Resistance: The impact resistance must be not less than 660 grams.

2.2.2.1.9. Slip Characteristics: PE film bags must be low slip (static coefficient of friction not less than 0.50 for outside of material to outside of material test).

2.2.2.1.10. Tagging: Extra precaution must be taken in securing bale tags to prevent lost tags.

2.2.2.1.11. Tare Weight: Tare weight shall be not less than 1.6 pounds per bag.

2.2.2.1.12. Sealing Heads of Bales: Extra precaution must be taken in sealing heads of bales to provide maximum coverage and protection.

2.2.2.1.13. Bag Size: Each PE film bag shall be not less than 85 inches in length when used on 54-55 inch by 20-21 inch presses – except as specified for PE Film for the Form, Fill and Seal (FFS) Gusseted Bagger (BSB-1010) System (see 2.2.2.2).

2.2.2.1.14. Inhibitor Concentration: The film shall be stabilized with a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS). The film shall contain one or a combination of Tinuvin 622 LD and Chimassorb 944 from Ciba-Geigy Corporation or other equivalent HALS at a total concentration of not less than 0.3 percent weight of active inhibitor. The known and consistent concentrations of each combined HALS shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC.

2.2.2.1.15. Weathering Resistance: The film shall retain not less than 70 percent of its original tensile breaking strength after 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering.

2.2.2.2. PE Film for FFS/BSB-1010 System: The PE film for FFS/BSB-1010 systems shall meet all requirements in Section 2.2.2. Polyethylene (PE) film except for 2.2.2.1.13. Bag Size. The finished FFS/BSB-1010 bag size shall be sufficient to fully cover the bale.

2.2.2.2.1. Qualification of PE Film for FFS/BSB-1010 systems: PE film supplied by any packaging firm other than the one originally tested with the system, or otherwise qualified, may supply film for use in a FFS/BSB-1010 system after submission of PE film test data meeting requirements as specified in Section 2.2.2.2.; the longitudinal seal and gusseted heat seal end requirements in Sections 2.2.2.2.2.2. and 2.2.2.2.2.3.; and successful completion of a JCIBPC-sanctioned compatibility test program lasting at least one ginning season (see 2.2.2.2.4.).

2.2.2.2.2. FFS/BSB-1010 Systems: The systems (machinery devices) originally approved for incorporation into these specifications are considered to be holistic methods which consider both the machinery device and the FFS/BSB-1010 PE film bagging materials as tested by the JCIBPC as integral components of each FFS/BSB-1010 system.

2.2.2.2.2.1. FFS/BSB-1010 Bag Formation: The FFS/BSB-1010 system: 1) feeds C-folded PE film using a patented unfolding apparatus and method; 2) conveys the PE film through patented forming collars; 3) forms a tube of PE film fully encircling a bale; 4) provides sufficient PE film overlap to permit the formation of a centered longitudinal seal along the longest upward facing flat side of a bale; and 5) completes the fabrication process by forming gusseted closures on each bale end that are heat sealed.

2.2.2.2.2.2. Longitudinal Seal: A single, overlapped flat seal shall be formed by the FFS/BSB-1010 system with a heated air process producing a 0.125 inch wide weld joining the two film edges. As the bale progresses through the system, the welded film joint is pressed between rollers to improve joint strength.

2.2.2.2.2.3. Gusseted Heat Sealed Ends: The gin fabricated bag produced by the FFS/BSB-1010 system will contain gusseted heat sealed bag ends.

2.2.2.2.3. General PE film Requirements for FFS/BSB-1010 systems:

2.2.2.2.3.1. Longitudinal Seal Strength: For FFS/BSB-1010 PE film bags, the average seal strength must be not less than 2000 lb/sq in.

2.2.2.2.3.2. Longitudinal Seal Elongation: For FFS/BSB-1010 PE film bags, the average seal elongation must be not less than 180 percent.

2.2.2.2.3.3. Longitudinal Seal Weld Width: For FFS/BSB-1010 PE film bags, the average width for the welded seal shall be not less than 0.125 inch.

2.2.2.2.3.4. End Seal Characteristics for FFS PE Film Bags: For FFS/BSB-1010 PE film bags, the average end seal strength must be not less than 1500 lb/sq in and the recommended elongation is 100 percent.

2.2.2.2.4. Compatibility Testing of PE Film for FFS/BSB-1010 Systems: PE film supplied by any packaging firm other than the one originally testing the system, or otherwise qualified, may supply film for use in the FFS/BSB-1010 system after submission of PE film test data meeting basic requirements as specified in Section 2.2.2 and weld seal requirements as specified in Section 2.2.2.2.4. In addition, successful completion of a JCIBPC-sanctioned experimental test program lasting at least one ginning season or until such time that the alternative PE film proves its compatibility with the FFS/BSB-1010 is required.

2.2.2.3. Identification Markings: Each PE film bag must have identification markings to denote type (see 2.2.2.1.1 and 2.2.2.1.2) suitably printed no more than 36 inches apart. Each PE film bag must also have the name or trademark of the film extruder and the universal recycle logo with appropriate recycle code (#4 for LLDPE) suitably printed no more than 36 inches apart. Each identification mark shall be at least three-fourths inch in height. The identification markings shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. Ink of any color but white shall be used for printing logos. Where PE film bags are fabricated by manufacturers other than the film supplier, the fabricator's name or trademark shall appear on each PE film bag in addition to the film extruder's name or trademark. The PE film bag fabricator, when other than the film manufacturer, shall register the name or trademark with the JCIBPC.

2.2.2.3.1. Linear Low Density: Bag type identification markings must read either "NEW--100% linear low density polyethylene" or "NEW--100% LLDPE."

2.2.2.3.2. Tri-Extruded: Bag type identification markings must read "NEW--Tri-Extruded Polyethylene."

2.2.2.4. Inspection and Certification Requirements:

2.2.2.4.1. Responsibility for Inspection: The film manufacturer and the supplier are both responsible for performance of all inspection requirements as specified herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.2.4.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

2.2.2.4.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the film manufacturer or supplier.

2.2.2.4.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

2.2.2.4.4.1. Submission of Samples: All manufacturers of polyethylene must submit samples to a private testing laboratory selected by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all prescribed specifications.

2.2.2.4.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The film and/or PE film bag manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that films or PE film bags are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards for polyethylene described in sections 2.2.2.1 through 2.2.2.15.

2.2.2.4.4.3. Certification of Film Furnished: PE film manufacturers and/or fabricators shall certify to customers that the PE film furnished has been manufactured in a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale covers and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list. In addition PE film manufacturers and/or fabricators shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List.

2.2.2.5. Test Methods for PE film bags:

2.2.2.5.1. Sample Size: Each sample of polyethylene will consist of one PE film bag.

2.2.2.5.2. Length: The length of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the length measured. Each side will be measured from top edge to bottom edge. The length of the sample will be the average of the two measurements rounded to the nearest inch.

2.2.2.5.3. Weight of Bagging: The weight of PE film bagging will be determined by weighing on suitably accurate scales, and the weight per bag will be determined to the nearest one-tenth pound. Several PE film bags may be weighed simultaneously and the weight averaged.

2.2.2.5.4. Gauge and Gauge Tolerance: The gauge and gauge tolerance shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D374.

2.2.2.5.5. Tensile Strength and Elongation: The tensile strength and elongation shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D882.

2.2.2.5.6. Tear Resistance: Tear resistance shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D1922 (Elmendorf Tear) using a 6400 gram pendulum.

2.2.2.5.7. Impact Resistance: Impact resistance shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D1709, Method A, using an aluminum dart.

2.2.2.5.8. Slip Characteristics: Slip characteristics shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D1894.

2.2.2.5.9. Inhibitor Concentration: The HALS stabilized film shall be analyzed for inhibitor concentration in accordance with ASTM D6953 or ASTM D7210. Values obtained of less than the required concentrations shall be deemed non-conformance and constitute failure of this test.

2.2.2.5.10. Accelerated Weathering:

2.2.2.5.10.1. Accelerated Weathering Methods: The balance of the specimens shall be tested in accordance with either xenon arc testing (preferred test method) or carbon arc testing (allowed test method).

2.2.2.5.10.1.1. Xenon Arc Testing: Xenon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G155 Cycle 1.

2.2.2.5.10.1.2. Carbon Arc Testing: Carbon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G153 for not less than 1,200 hours, except that the black panel temperature shall be maintained at 155 degrees Fahrenheit (F), plus or minus 3 degrees F. The black panel temperature shall be read during the final 10 minutes of a cycle just before the water spray period starts.

2.2.2.5.10.2. Breaking Tensile Strength after Accelerated Weathering: At the completion of 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering, the exposed specimens shall be tested for breaking strength in accordance with ASTM D882.

2.2.2.5.10.3. Longitudinal and End Seal Strength and Elongation for FFS/BSB-1010 PE Film: After welding, FFS/BSB-1010 PE film’s longitudinal seal strength and elongation percent shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D882.

2.2.2.5.10.4. Longitudinal Seal Width for FFS/BSB-1010 PE Film: The width shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D374.


2.2.3. Polypropylene Bagging:

2.2.3.1. General: Polypropylene material used to wrap bales shall be new polypropylene fabric manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country and woven specifically for use on cotton bales. The bale covers shall be uniform in size and color, clean, unstained, and free of any extraneous material.

2.2.3.1.1. Yarns: Scrap, re-ground, or reworked polymers may be used for yarns, provided material meets all specifications under 2.2.3.

2.2.3.1.1.1. Type: The yarn shall be crystalline or isostatic polypropylene type yarns.

2.2.3.1.1.2. Dimension:

2.2.3.1.1.2.1. For fabric constructions of 12 warp yarns per inch and 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 95 mils wide, plus or minus 2 mils and 2.1 mils thick, plus or minus 0.2 mil with a linear density of 1050 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier. Weft (filling) yarn dimensions shall be not less than 110 mils wide, plus or minus 2 mils and 1.8 mils thick, plus or minus 0.2 mils with a minimum linear density of 1050 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.2.2. For fabric constructions of 12 warp yarns per inch and either 8.5 or 9.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 80 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density of 840 Denier, plus 100 Denier or minus 50 Denier. Filling yarn dimensions shall be 95 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a minimum linear density of 890 Denier, plus 100 Denier or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.2.3. For fabric constructions of 10 warp yarns per inch and 7 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 100 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density of 1050 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier. Filling yarn dimensions shall be 110 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density of 1050 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.2.4. For fabric constructions of 8 warp yarns per inch and 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be between 100 and 115 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density between 800 and 1000 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier. The weft (filling) yarn dimensions shall be 110 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density between 800 and 1000 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.2.5. For fabric constructions of 11.3 or 9 warp yarns per inch and 6 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 90 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density of 900 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier. Filling yarn dimensions shall be 115 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils, with a linear density of 1300 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.2.6. For fabric constructions of 20 warp yarns per inch and 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 47 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils and 1.4 mils thick, plus or minus 0.2 mils, with a linear density of 380 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier. Weft (filling) yarn dimensions shall be 106 mils wide, plus or minus 5 mils and 1.6 mils thick, plus or minus 0.2 mils, with a linear density of 840 Denier, plus or minus 50 Denier.

2.2.3.1.1.3. Inhibitor Concentration: For yarns stabilized with a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), the yarn shall contain one or a combination of Tinuvin 622 LD and Chimassorb 944 from Ciba-Geigy Corporation or other equivalent HALS at a total concentration of not less than 0.3 percent weight of active inhibitor. The known and consistent concentrations of each combined HALS shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC.

2.2.3.1.1.4. Trace Element: Additionally, when HALS inhibitors are used, the yarn must also contain a trace element of barium sulfate at a concentration of not less than 0.05 percent by weight that must be detectable after weathering for identification purposes. The JCIBPC will have samples checked periodically by a private laboratory at manufacturers' expense.

2.2.3.1.2. Fabric Woven from Stabilized Yarns:

2.2.3.1.2.1. Fabric Count:

2.2.3.1.2.1.1. For 12 x 8 constructions: There must be an average of 12 warp yarns per inch and an average of 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 11 warp yarns or 7 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.2. For 12 x 8.5 constructions: There must be an average of 12 warp yarns per inch and an average of 8.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 11 warp yarns or 7.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.3. For 12 x 9.5 constructions: There must be an average of 12 warp yarns per inch and an average of 9.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 11 warp yarns or 8.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.4. For 10 x 7 constructions: There must be an average of 10 warp yarns per inch and an average of 7 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 9.5 warp yarns per inch or 6.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.5. For 8 x 8 constructions: There must be an average of 8 warp yarns per inch and an average of 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 7.5 warp yarns per inch or 7.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.6. For 11.3 x 6 constructions: There must be an average of 11.3 warp yarns per inch and an average of 5.9 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 10.8 warp yarns or 5.4 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.7. For 9 x 6 constructions: There must be an average of 9 warp yarns per inch and an average of 5.9 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 8.5 warp yarns or 5.4 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.1.8. For 20 x 8 constructions: There must be an average of 20 warp yarns per inch and an average of 8 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 19.5 warp yarns per inch or 7.5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.1.2.2. Minimum Weight:

2.2.3.1.2.2.1. For 12 x 8 fabric constructions: The non-extrusion coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.7 ounces per square yard and no test sample shall weigh less than 2.5 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.2. For 12 x 8.5 fabric constructions: The non-extrusion coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.3 ounces per square yard and no single test sample shall weigh less than 2.1 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.3. For 12 x 9.5 fabric constructions: The non-extrusion coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.5 ounces per square yard and no single test sample shall weigh not less than 2.3 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.4. For 10 x 7 fabric constructions: The non-extrusion coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.3 ounces per square yard and no single test sample shall weigh less than 2.1 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.5. For 8 x 8 fabric constructions: The coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.3 ounces per square yard and no single test sample shall weigh less than 2.1 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.6. For 11.3 x 6 fabric constructions: The coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 3.2 ounces per square yard and no test sample shall weigh less than 3.0 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.7. For 9 x 6 fabric constructions: The coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 3.0 ounces per square yard and no test sample shall weigh less than 2.75 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.2.8. For 20 x 8 fabric constructions: The coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.5 ounces per square yard and no test sample shall weigh less than 2.3 ounces per square yard.

2.2.3.1.2.3. Color: The color of the fabric containing HALS shall be translucent white or translucent light gold unless otherwise approved by the JCIBPC. The center of each panel, for bag and panel combinations, must be marked in the weft (filling) direction with a clearly visible line printed with ink of any color but white or black running across the entire width of the panel or with a series of three lines having a minimum of 12 inches on each edge and a minimum of 12 inches in the center. The lines must be within one inch of the true center of the length of the panel.

2.2.3.1.2.4. Tensile Strength: Ten samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test shall be more than 10 pounds per inch below the specified average.

2.2.3.1.2.4.1. For 12 x 8, 12 x 8.5 or 9.5 and 10 x 7 fabric constructions: The minimum tensile strengths of uncoated fabrics shall be 125 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 90 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.3.1.2.4.2. For 11.3 x 6 fabric constructions: The minimum tensile strengths of coated fabric shall be 125 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 90 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.3.1.2.4.3. For 9 x 6 fabric constructions: The minimum tensile strengths of coated fabric shall be 120 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 110 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.3.1.2.4.4. For 20 x 8 fabric constructions: The minimum tensile strengths of coated fabric shall be 160 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 106 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.3.1.2.4.5. For 8 x 8 fabric constructions: The minimum tensile strengths of coated fabric shall be 115 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 110 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.3.1.2.5. Elongation:

2.2.3.1.2.5.1. For 12 x 8, 12 x 8.5, 12 x 9.5, 11.3 x 6, 10 x 7, 9 x 6 and 20 x 8 fabric constructions: The fabric shall have an elongation to break of not less than 15 percent average in both warp and weft (filling) directions. Ten samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test value shall be below 12 percent.

2.2.3.1.2.5.2. For 8 x 8 fabric constructions: The fabric shall have an elongation to break of not less than 25 percent average in both warp and weft (filling) directions. Ten samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test value shall be below 20 percent.

2.2.3.1.2.6. Selvage: Each outer edge of the fabric shall be tucked selvage or natural selvage containing not less than the number of weft (filling) ends prevalent in the body of the fabric or the fabric shall have mechanically cut edges in such a fashion that the yarns are held in position by the coating.

2.2.3.1.2.7. Air Permeability: The non-extrusion coated fabric in an unstressed state must permit not less than 5 cubic feet per minute per square foot, nor more than 50 cubic feet per minute per square foot of air flow.

2.2.3.1.2.8. Weathering Resistance: The fabric shall retain not less than 70 percent of its original tensile breaking strength after 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering.

2.2.3.1.3. Coatings: Any coating added to the fabric to reduce gloss, fibrillation, slippage, or for other technical reasons, shall be as stable as the fabric to which it has been applied when exposed to accelerated weathering and low temperatures. Such coating must not adversely affect cotton which it is to contact. Coating must not delaminate during stresses of baling and compression. The coatings and base yarns must be of like color.

2.2.3.1.3.1. For 12 x 8, 12 x 8.5 or 9.5 and 10 x 7 fabric constructions: polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polypropylene fabric by extrusion coating at a minimum thickness at any point of 0.75 mil.

2.2.3.1.3.2. For 8 x 8 fabric constructions: polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polypropylene fabric by extrusion coating at a minimum thickness at any point of 0.75 mil.

2.2.3.1.3.3. For 20 x 8 fabric constructions: polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polypropylene fabric by extrusion coating at a minimum thickness at any point of 1 mil.

2.2.3.2. Fully-Coated Gusseted Spiral-Sewn Bags Used to Wrap Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:

2.2.3.2.1. Material: Fabric shall conform to the specifications for the 12 x 8, 12 x 8.5 or 9.5, 10 x 7, 8 x 8 or 20 x 8 fabric constructions meeting applicable requirements in Sections 2.2.4.1. through 2.2.3.1.3.3., 2.2.3.7. and 2.2.3.8.

2.2.3.2.2. Fabric Width: The fabric from which each bag is sewn shall be a minimum of 60 inches in width.

2.2.3.2.3. Bag Size: The bag size must be tailored to individual bale size at each location. Bags shall fit bales tightly, but must be large enough to slip down for sampling and minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads of bales. The gussets shall be of equal width, plus or minus 1 inch. The minimum finished bag length shall be not less than 85 inches.

2.2.3.2.4. Seams: Seams must be sewn in accordance with the following: Type SSn-1 (folded), SSa-1 (flat), and LSa-1 (overlap), type 401 stitch, minimum four stitches per inch, and 4/12 or 5/12 cotton thread, or a polypropylene thread with an approximate yarn Denier of 1,000, meeting ultraviolet light inhibitor concentration and identification concentration requirements of Section 2.2.3.2.3, with a minimum tensile strength of 11.02 pounds. Sewn seams at bottom of bags must be a minimum of three-fourths inch from heat cut edges and be of type SSa-1 (flat). Color of polypropylene sewing thread shall meet color requirements of Section 2.2.4.3.5.

2.2.3.2.5. Coating: Coating shall meet requirements of Section 2.2.4.4 and shall be applied across the entire width of the flat fabric.

2.2.3.2.6. Venting: The bag shall be adequately vented without impairing the integrity of the bag.

2.2.3.3. Fully-Coated Gusseted Extruded Seam Bags Used to Wrap Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:

2.2.3.3.1. Material: Fabric shall conform to the specifications for 11.3 x 6 and 9 x 6 fully-coated fabric construction meeting applicable requirements of Sections 2.2.3.1 through 2.2.3.1.3.2., 2.2.3.7. and 2.2.3.8.

2.2.3.3.2. Fabric Width: The fabric from which each bag is fabricated shall be a minimum of 100 inches in width.

2.2.3.3.3. Bag Size: The bag size must be tailored to individual bale size at each location. Bags must fit bales tightly, but must be large enough to slip down for sampling and minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads of bales. The gussets shall be of equal width, plus or minus 1 inch. The minimum finished bag length shall not be less than 80 inches, measured from sewn bottom seam to the mouth of the bag.

2.2.3.3.4. Seams: The bag shall be formed from a flat sheet of fabric by means of two seams. The first shall be a continuous extruded seam of polyolefin material joining the edges of the fabric panel to form a tube. Location of the seam shall be identified by the use of a pigment in the seaming material. The extruded seam shall be made using an extruder and die system that utilizes polymers with similar rheology characteristics to the resins used to coat the bags and shall have a minimum cut-strip tensile strength of 50 pounds per inch. At least 3 strips, 2 inches in width shall be cut parallel to the weft (filling) yarns from any bag to determine the seam strength. The bottom of the tube shall be closed with a type SSn-1 (folded) seam, chain stitch, minimum 3 stitches per inch, using a polypropylene thread with an approximate yarn Denier of 1000, meeting ultraviolet light inhibitor concentration requirements of Section 2.2.3.1.1.3., with a minimum tensile strength of 11.02 pounds.

2.2.3.3.5. Coating: Coating shall meet the requirements of Section 2.2.3.1.3. Polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polypropylene fabric by extrusion coating. Fully-coated 11.3 x 6 or 9 x 6 fabrics shall have a continuous polyolefin coating with an average thickness of 1.5 mils, plus or minus 0.2 mils.

2.2.3.3.6. Venting: The bag shall be adequately vented without impairing the integrity of the bag.

2.2.3.4. Fully-Coated Gusseted Circular Woven Bags Used to Wrap Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:

2.2.3.4.1. Material: Fabric shall conform to the specifications for 8 x 8 fully-coated fabric construction meeting applicable requirements of Sections 2.2.3.1 through 2.2.3.1.3.2., 2.2.3.7., 2.2.3.8. The tube of fabric shall be woven on a circular loom.

2.2.3.4.2. Fabric Width: The circular woven fabric from which bags are sewn shall be a minimum of 98 inches in circumference.

2.2.3.4.3. Bag Size: The bag size must be tailored to individual bale size at each location. Bags shall fit bales tightly, but must be large enough to slip down for sampling and minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads of bales. The gussets shall be of equal width, plus or minus 1 inch. The minimum finished bag length shall be not less than 87 inches.

2.2.3.4.4. Seams: Sewn seams at bottom of bags must be a minimum of three-fourths inch from edges and must be sewn in accordance with the following: Type SSn-1 (folded) or SSa-1 (flat), type 401 stitch, minimum four stitches per inch, and 4/12 or 5/12 cotton thread, or a polypropylene thread with an approximate yarn Denier of 1,000, meeting ultraviolet light inhibitor concentration and identification concentration requirements of Section 2.2.3.2.3, with a minimum tensile strength of 11.02 pounds. Color of polypropylene sewing thread shall meet color requirements of Section 2.2.3.1.2.3.

2.2.3.4.5. Coating: Coating shall meet the requirements of Section 2.2.3.1.3. Polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polypropylene fabric by extrusion coating. Fully-coated 8 x 8 fabrics shall have a continuous polyolefin coating with an average thickness of 1.0 mil, minus 0.2 mils.

2.2.3.4.6. Venting: The bag shall be adequately vented without impairing the integrity of the bag.

2.2.3.5. Identification Markings: Each circular woven bag, panel and/or sewn bag must have the name or trademark of the fabric manufacturer (that is, the company weaving the material) and the appropriate yarn Denier (either 840 x 890, 800, 1000, 1050, 900 x 1300, or 380 x 840) and construction (12 x 8.5 or 9.5, 8 x 8, 12 x 8, 10 x 7, 9 or 11.3 x 6 or 20 x 8) suitably printed no more than 36 inches apart in the center of each bag. Each identification mark shall be at least three-fourths inch in height. The identification markings shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. Ink of any color but black or white shall be used for printing logos and centering marks. Where bags are fabricated by manufacturers other than the supplier of basic fabric or their subcontractor, the fabricator's name or trademark shall appear on each pattern in addition to the fabric manufacturer's name or trademark. The bag fabricator, when other than the fabric manufacturer, shall register the name or trademark with the JCIBPC.

2.2.3.6. Inspection and Certification Requirements:

2.2.3.6.1. Responsibility for Inspection: The fabric manufacturer and the supplier are both responsible for performance of all inspection requirements as specified herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.3.6.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

2.2.3.6.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the fabric manufacturer or supplier.

2.2.3.6.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

2.2.3.6.4.1. Submission of Samples: All manufacturers of polypropylene must submit samples to a private testing laboratory selected by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all prescribed specifications.

2.2.3.6.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The fabric manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that fabrics are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards. The bag manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that specifications for seams, cutting and sizes are met.

2.2.3.6.4.3. Certification of Fabric Furnished: Fabric manufacturers shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. In addition polypropylene fabric manufacturers shall certify to customers that the fabric furnished has been manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale covers, and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list.

2.2.3.7. Test Methods:

2.2.3.7.1. Sample Size: Polypropylene material selected for testing will consist of a minimum of ten randomly selected panels or spiral-sewn bags or an equivalent amount of flat goods in cases where the material is tested before it is in sewn form.

2.2.3.7.2. Length: The length of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the length measured along both selvages for panels and along both sides for bags. The length of the sample will be the average of the two measurements rounded to the nearest inch.

2.2.3.7.3. Width: The width of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device and will include any selvages. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the measurements made perpendicular to the lengths (selvages in the case of panels). Three width measurements will be taken on each sample. One measurement will be made at the center of the sample and two other measurements will be made approximately 12 inches in from each end of the sample. The average of the three measurements, rounded to the nearest inch, will be the width.

2.2.3.7.4. Warp Yarn Count: The number of warp ends in a 12-inch width of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the warp yarns per inch.

2.2.3.7.5. Weft (Filling) Yarn Count: The number of weft (filling) ends in a 12-inch length of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.3.7.6. Yarn Dimensions: Polypropylene yarn dimensions will be tested as specified in ASTM D3218.

2.2.3.7.7. Inhibitor Concentration: Warp and weft (filling) yarns shall be analyzed for inhibitor concentration in accordance with ASTM D6953 or ASTM D7210. Values obtained of less than the required concentrations in either warp or weft (filling) directions of the fabric shall be deemed non-conforming and constitute failure of this test.

2.2.3.7.8. Trace Element: For yarns stabilized by HALS, yarn shall be removed from the warp direction of each test sample and analyzed for the barium sulfate identification concentration by following applicable analytical test procedures as specified in ASTM D6247. Specimen yarns shall likewise be removed from the weft (filling) or fill direction and tested for identification concentration. Values obtained of less than 0.05 percent barium, as metal for the trace element in warp and/or weft (filling) directions of the fabric shall be deemed non-conformance and constitute failure of this test.

2.2.3.7.9. Fabric Weight: The fabric weight per square yard shall be determined using ASTM D3776.

2.2.3.7.10. Tensile Strength and Elongation: A minimum of ten randomly selected samples will be tested for tensile strength and elongation to break at standard conditions and in accordance with ASTM D5035.

2.2.3.7.11. Accelerated Weathering:

2.2.3.7.11.1. Accelerated Weathering Methods: The balance of the specimens shall be tested in accordance with either xenon arc testing (preferred test method) or carbon arc testing (allowed test method).

2.2.3.7.11.1.1. Xenon Arc Testing: Xenon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G155 Cycle 1 for not less than 1,200 hours.

2.2.3.7.11.1.2. Carbon Arc Testing: Carbon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G153 for not less than 1,200 hours, except that the black panel temperature shall be maintained at 155 degrees Fahrenheit (F), plus or minus 3 degrees F. The black panel temperature shall be read during the final 10 minutes of a cycle just before the water spray period starts.

2.2.3.7.11.2. Breaking Tensile Strength after Accelerated Weathering: At the completion of 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering, the specimens shall be conditioned for 24 hours at the standard conditions specified in ASTM D5035. After conditioning, the exposed specimens shall be tested for breaking strength in accordance with ASTM D5035. An average breaking strength of less than 70 percent of the initial average breaking strength for its respective warp or weft (filling) yarn direction shall constitute failure of this test.

2.2.3.7.12. Ends of Heat Cut Sheets and/or Spiral-Sewn Bags: Heat cut ends of cotton bale cover sheets and spiral tubing shall be evaluated for heat cut strength as specified in ASTM Method D 751. Pin test values of less than 40 pounds, as per this method, shall constitute failure of this test.

2.2.3.7.13. Air Permeability: The non-extrusion coated fabric shall be tested for air permeability as specified in ASTM D737-75. Air permeability values of less than 5 or more than 50 cubic feet per minute per square foot will constitute failure of this test.


2.2.4. Polyethylene Woven Bagging:

2.2.4.1. General: Polyethylene material used to wrap bales shall be new polyethylene fabric manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country and woven specifically for use on cotton bales. The bale covers shall be uniform in size and color, clean, unstained, and free of any extraneous material.

2.2.4.1.1. Yarns:

2.2.4.1.1.1. Type: The yarn shall be 100% high-density homopolymer polyethylene.

2.2.4.1.1.2. Dimension: For fabric constructions of 9 warp yarns per inch and 5.8 weft (filling) yarns per inch, warp yarn dimensions shall be 1.7 mils thick, plus or minus 0.1 mil and 98 mils wide, plus or minus 10 mils, with a linear density of 935 Denier, plus or minus 55 Denier. Filling yarn dimensions shall be not less than 1.8 mils thick, plus or minus 0.1 mil and 148 mils wide, plus or minus 10 mils, with a linear density of 1260 Denier, plus or minus 90 Denier.

2.2.4.1.1.3. Inhibitor Concentration: For yarns stabilized with a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), the yarn shall contain one or a combination of Tinuvin 622 LD and Chimassorb 944 from Ciba-Geigy Corporation or other equivalent HALS at a total concentration of not less than 0.032 percent weight of active inhibitor. The known and consistent concentrations of each combined HALS shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC.

2.2.4.1.1.4. Trace Element: The yarn must contain a trace element of vanadium at a concentration of not less than 0.0001 percent by weight which must be detectable after weathering for identification purposes. The JCIBPC will have samples checked periodically by a private laboratory at manufacturers' expense.

2.2.4.1.2. Fabric Woven from Stabilized Yarns:

2.2.4.1.2.1. Fabric Count: For 9 x 5.8 constructions, there must be an average of 9 warp yarns per inch and an average of 5.8 weft (filling) yarns per inch. No test sample shall contain less than 8 warp yarns or 5 weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.4.1.2.2. Minimum Weight: For 9 x 5.8 fabric constructions, the extrusion coated fabric must weigh an average of not less than 2.7 ounces per square yard and no test sample shall weigh less than 2.5 ounces per square yard.

2.2.4.1.2.3. Color: The color of the uncoated fabric containing HALS shall be translucent natural unless otherwise approved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.4.1.2.4. Tensile Strength: Tensile strength of all coated fabrics shall be 110 pounds per inch average in the warp direction and 100 pounds per inch average in the weft (filling) direction. Ten samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test shall be more than 20 pounds per inch below the specified average.

2.2.4.1.2.5. Elongation: The fabric shall have an elongation to break of not less than 15 percent average in both warp and weft (filling) directions. Ten samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test value shall be below 12 percent.

2.2.4.1.2.6. Selvage and Ends: Each outer edge of the fabric shall be tucked selvage or natural selvage containing not less than the number of weft (filling) ends prevalent in the body of the fabric. A heat cut selvage will not be acceptable. Ends of spiral-sewn bags must be finished by heat cutting to give a pin test value of at least 40 pounds.

2.2.4.1.2.7. Air Permeability: The non-extrusion coated fabric in an unstressed state must permit not less than 5 cubic feet per minute per square foot, nor more than 50 cubic feet per minute per square foot of air flow.

2.2.4.1.2.8. Weathering Resistance: The fabric shall retain not less than 70 percent of its original tensile breaking strength after 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering.

2.2.4.1.3. Coatings: Any coating added to the fabric to reduce gloss, fibrillation, slippage, or for other technical reasons, shall be as stable as the fabric to which it has been applied when exposed to accelerated weathering and low temperatures. Such coating must not adversely affect cotton, which it is to contact. Polyolefin coating added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven polyethylene fabric by extrusion coating at a minimum thickness at any point of 0.75 mil. Coating must not delaminate during stresses of baling and compression.

2.2.4.2. Fully-Coated Gusseted Spiral-Sewn Bags Used to Wrap Gin Standard and Gin Universal Density Bales:

2.2.4.2.1. Material: Fabric shall conform to the specifications for the 9 x 5.8 fabric construction meeting applicable requirements in Sections 2.2.4.1 through 2.2.4.1.3., 2.2.4.3 and 2.2.4.4.

2.2.4.2.2. Fabric Width: The fabric from which each bag is sewn shall be a minimum of 60 inches in width.

2.2.4.2.3. Bag Size: The bag size must be tailored to individual bale size at each location. Bags shall fit bales tightly, but must be large enough to slip down for sampling and minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads of bales. The gussets shall be of equal width, plus or minus 1 inch. The minimum finished bag length shall be not less than 85 inches.

2.2.4.2.4. Seams: Seams must be sewn in accordance with the following: Type SSn-1 (folded), type 401 stitch, minimum 3.5 stitches per inch, and 4/12 or 5/12 cotton thread, or a polypropylene thread with an approximate yarn Denier of 1,000, meeting ultraviolet light inhibitor concentration and identification concentration requirements of Section 2.2.4.1.1.3, with a minimum tensile strength of 11.02 pounds. Sewn seams at bottom of bags must be a minimum of three-fourths inch from heat cut edges and be of type SSn-1 (folded). Color of polypropylene sewing thread shall meet color requirements of Section 2.2.4.1.2.3.

2.2.4.2.5. Coating: Coating shall meet requirements of Section 2.2.4.4 and shall be applied across the entire width of the flat fabric. Coating must be located within 0.5 inches plus or minus 0.25 inches of the selvage edge.

2.2.4.2.6. Venting: The bag shall be adequately vented without impairing the integrity of the bag.

2.2.4.3. Identification Markings: Each sewn bag must have the name or trademark of the fabric manufacturer (that is, the company weaving the material) and the appropriate yarn Denier (880 x 1170) and construction (9 x 5.8) suitably printed no more than 36 inches apart in the center of each bag. Each identification mark shall be at least three-fourths inch in height. The identification markings shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. Ink of any color but black or white shall be used for printing logos and centering marks. Where bags are fabricated by manufacturers other than the supplier of basic fabric or their subcontractor, the fabricator's name or trademark shall appear on each pattern in addition to the fabric manufacturer's name or trademark. The bag fabricator, when other than the fabric manufacturer, shall register the name or trademark with the JCIBPC.

2.2.4.4. Inspection, Testing and Certification Requirements:

2.2.4.4.1. Responsibility for Inspection: The fabric manufacturer and the supplier are both responsible for performance of all inspection requirements as specified herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.4.4.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

2.2.4.4.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the fabric manufacturer or supplier.

2.2.4.4.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

2.2.4.4.4.1. Submission of Samples: All manufacturers of polyethylene must submit samples to a private testing laboratory selected by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all prescribed specifications.

2.2.4.4.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The fabric manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that fabrics are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards. The bag manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that specifications for seams, cutting and sizes are met.

2.2.4.4.4.3. Certification of Fabric Furnished: Fabric manufacturers shall satisfy applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. In addition polyethylene fabric manufacturers shall certify to customers that the fabric furnished has been manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale covers, and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list.

2.2.4.5. Test Methods:

2.2.4.5.1. Sample Size: Polyethylene material selected for testing will consist of a minimum of ten randomly selected spiral-sewn bags or an equivalent amount of flat goods in cases where the material is tested before it is in sewn form.

2.2.4.5.2. Length: The length of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the length measured along both sides of the bags. The length of the sample will be the average of the two measurements rounded to the nearest inch.

2.2.4.5.3. Width: The width of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device and will include any selvages. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the measurements made perpendicular to the lengths. Three width measurements will be taken on each sample. One measurement will be made at the center of the sample and two other measurements will be made approximately 12 inches in from each end of the sample. The average of the three measurements, rounded to the nearest inch, will be the width.

2.2.4.5.4. Warp Yarn Count: The number of warp ends in a 12-inch width of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the warp yarns per inch.

2.2.4.5.5. Weft (Filling) Yarn Count: The number of weft (filling) ends in a 12-inch length of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.4.5.6. Yarn Dimensions: Polyethylene yarn dimensions will be tested as specified in ASTM D3218.

2.2.4.5.7. Inhibitor Concentration: Yarn shall be removed from the warp and weft (filling) directions of each test sample and analyzed for the HALS ultraviolet light inhibitor concentration as specified in Ciba-Geigy Corporation's analytical methods ADD-297 liquid chromatography and ADD-343 gel permeation chromatography. Material containing one approved HALS (Section 2.2.4.1.1.) shall result in a test value of no less than 0.032 percent HALS by weight. Material containing two approved HALS (Section 2.2.4.1.1.) combined at known and consistent concentrations shall result in a combined test value of no less than 0.032 percent HALS by weight. The known and consistent concentrations of each combined HALS shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. Values obtained of less than the required concentrations in either warp or weft (filling) directions of the fabric shall be deemed non-conformance and constitute failure of this test.

2.2.4.5.8. Trace Element: Yarn shall be removed from the warp and weft (filling) directions of each test sample and analyzed for the vanadium identification concentration by neutron activation. Specimen yarns shall likewise be removed from the weft (filling) or fill direction and tested for identification concentration. Values obtained of less than 0.0001 percent vanadium, as metal for the inhibitor in warp and/or weft (filling) directions of the fabric shall be deemed non-conformance and constitute failure of this test.

2.2.4.5.9. Fabric Weight: The fabric weight per square yard shall be determined using ASTM D3776.

2.2.4.5.10. Tensile Strength and Elongation: A minimum of ten randomly selected samples will be tested for tensile strength and elongation to break at standard conditions and in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 191A.

2.2.4.5.11. Accelerated Weathering:

2.2.4.5.11.1. Preparation of Specimens: The sample unit will be one finished panel or spiral-sewn bag or an equivalent amount of flat goods. Three swatches 4 x 12 inches shall be cut from each principal direction (warp and weft (filling)) of the fabric. Each swatch shall be cut into two 4 x 6 inch test specimens: one specimen to be used for initial break strength and the other specimen to be used for break strength after accelerated weathering. The specimens shall be marked to indicate which are cut with the long dimension in the warp direction and which have the long dimension in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.4.5.11.2. Initial Tensile Breaking Strength: The marked control specimens shall be conditioned for 24 hours at the standard condition specified in ASTM D882. The result shall be averaged for specimens in warp direction and averaged for specimens in weft (filling) direction and these averages shall be recorded as the initial breaking strength in warp and weft (filling) directions. For all fabric constructions, an average in warp of less than 110 pounds or less than 105 pounds in the weft (filling) direction shall constitute failure of this test.

2.2.4.5.11.3. Accelerated Weathering Methods: The balance of the specimens shall be tested in accordance with either of the following methods.

2.2.4.5.11.3.1. Carbon Arc Testing: Carbon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G153 for not less than 1,200 hours, except that the black panel temperature shall be maintained at 155 degrees Fahrenheit (F), plus or minus 3 degrees F. The black panel temperature shall be read during the final 10 minutes of a cycle just before the water spray period starts.

2.2.4.5.11.3.2. Xenon Arc Testing: Xenon arc testing shall be performed utilizing ASTM G155 for not less than 1,200 hours.

2.2.4.5.11.4. Breaking Tensile Strength after Accelerated Weathering: At the completion of 1,200 hours exposure to accelerated weathering, the specimens shall be conditioned for 24 hours at the standard conditions specified in ASTM D882. After conditioning, the exposed specimens shall be tested for breaking strength in accordance with ASTM D882. An average breaking strength of less than 70 percent of the initial average breaking strength for its respective warp or weft (filling) yarn direction shall constitute failure of this test.

2.2.4.5.12. Ends of Heat Cut Sheets and/or Spiral-Sewn Bags: Heat cut ends of cotton bale cover sheets and spiral tubing shall be evaluated for heat cut strength as specified in ASTM Method D751. Pin test values of less than 40 pounds, as per this method, shall constitute failure of this test.

2.2.4.5.13. Air Permeability: The non-extrusion coated fabric shall be tested for air permeability as specified in ASTM D737-75. Air permeability values of less than 5 or more than 50 cubic feet per minute per square foot will constitute failure of this test.

2.2.5. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Woven Bagging: 

2.2.5.1. General: Polyethylene Terephthalate, hereafter referred to as PET woven bagging, used to wrap gin universal density bales shall be new PET fabric manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country and woven specifically for use on cotton bales. The bale covers shall be uniform in size, uniform in color, clean, unstained, and free of any extraneous material.

2.2.5.1.1. GinFast™ Bagging System: The GinFast™ bagging system originally approved for incorporation into these specifications in 2018 is a holistic method which considers both the machinery device and the PET bag as tested by the JCIBPC as an integral component of the system tested. PET bags supplied by manufacturers other than the company originally testing the system, or otherwise certified, may supply PET bagging for GinFast™ bagging systems after submission of bag test data meeting basic physical requirements as described in this specification and upon successful completion of a JCIBPC-sanctioned experimental test program lasting at least one ginning season or until which time the alternative bagging proves its performance and compatibility with the GinFast™ bagging system.

2.2.5.1.1.1. Description of Bagging System: The patented GinFast™ Bagging System removes a compressed UD cotton bale from the press by inserting fixed forks between the lower and upper blocks prior to ram release.   The captured cotton is then transferred into a receiver box.  The bale is then pushed into a fixed mandrel and inserted into a GinFast™ PET bag.  The cart then returns to await the presentation of the next bale.

2.2.5.1.1.2. Ribs in Press Box: 

2.2.5.1.1.2.1. Placement: Ten three-inch wide by .25-inch-thick ribs, five per wall, must be placed in the flat sides of the bale press box. The purpose of the ribs is to provide a measure of protection from rough handling for the recessed portions of the PET bag without jeopardizing the integrity of the bagging fabric.

2.2.5.1.1.2.2.    Advisory and Disclaimer: Gin operators should be advised that improper installation of steel bars might create potential risks to bale or fiber quality, equipment or workers. Therefore, ginners are urged to consult their respective gin press manufacturers prior to any addition or modification to the gin press.

2.2.5.1.1.3. Shut Height: A maximum shut height of 19 inches must be achieved prior to extracting the bale from the bale press.   Only then can the GinFast™ Bagging System be used to insert a bale into a PET bag.

2.2.5.1.2. Yarns: Scrap, re-ground, or reworked polymers may be used for yarns, provided material meets all specifications under 2.2.5. ...

2.2.5.1.2.1. Type: The yarn shall be crystalline or isostatic PET type yarns.

2.2.5.1.2.2. Dimension: For fabric constructions of 8 warp yarns per inch and 10 crammed weft (filling) yarns per inch: The warp yarn dimensions shall be 0.1181 in wide, plus or minus 0.0010 in and 0.001181 in thick, plus or minus .00010 in with a linear density of 1300 Denier, plus or minus 75 Denier. Weft (filling) yarn dimensions shall be 0.1969 in wide, plus or minus 0.0010 in and 0.00276 in thick, plus or minus 0.00010 in with a minimum linear density of 3600 Denier, plus or minus 100 Denier.

2.2.5.1.2.3. Inhibitor Concentration: Proprietary additive that contains (single) ultra violet absorber (UVA) inhibitors should be incorporated in warp and weft yarns. No concentration of HALS ultraviolet light inhibitor used. 

2.2.5.1.2.4. Trace Elements: N/A

2.2.5.1.3. Fabric Woven from Stabilized Yarns:

2.2.5.1.3.1.  Fabric Count: For 8 x 10 constructions: There must be a minimum of 8 warp yarns per inch and a minimum of 10 crammed weft (filling) yarns per inch. 

2.2.5.1.3.2. Minimum Weight: The coated fabric must weigh an average minimum of 7 ounces per square yard per bag 

2.2.5.1.3.3. Color: The color of the fabric shall be translucent light green unless otherwise approved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.5.1.3.4. Tensile Strength: Samples shall be tested in each direction for this determination and no single test shall be more than 10 pounds per inch below the specified minimum value. The minimum tensile strengths of coated fabric shall be 135 pounds per inch minimum in the warp direction and 328 pounds per inch minimum in the weft (filling) direction.

2.2.5.1.3.5. Elongation: The fabric shall have an elongation to break of not less than 7% in both warp and weft (filling) directions. 

2.2.5.1.3.6. Burst Strength: The minimum burst strengths of coated PET fabric shall be 328 pounds per inch.

2.2.5.1.3.7. Slip Characteristics: PET bags Static COF of the outside surface of the PET bags to the similar outside surface of the PET bag must be less than 0.30.

2.2.5.1.3.8. Weathering Resistance: The fabric shall retain not less than 70 percent of its original tensile breaking strength weft only after   300 - 500 hours exposure to accelerated weathering.

2.2.5.1.3.9. Coatings: Any coating added to the fabric to reduce gloss, fibrillation, slippage, or for other technical reasons, shall be as stable as the fabric to which it has been applied when exposed to accelerated weathering and low temperatures. Such coating must not adversely affect cotton which it is to contact. Coating must not delaminate during stresses of bagging.  The coatings added to prevent fibrillation must be thermally bonded to woven PET fabric by extrusion coating at an average minimum coating weight of 1 oz. per sq. yd.

2.2.5.1.3.10. Fabric Width: The circular woven fabric from which bags are sewn shall be a minimum of 93.75 inches in circumference.

2.2.5.1.3.11. Bag Size and Gussets: Bags shall fit bales tightly to minimize bursting and long enough to completely cover and secure heads of bales. Each PET bag shall be not less than 85.0 inches in length. The gussets shall be of equal width, plus or minus 1 inch.  

2.2.5.1.3.12. Venting: The bag shall be adequately vented without impairing the integrity of the bag.

2.2.5.2. Identification Markings: 

2.2.5.2.1. Name of Fabric Manufacturer, Denier, Construction: Each circular woven bag must have the name or trademark of the fabric manufacturer (that is, the company weaving the material), the appropriate yarn Denier (1300 X 3600) and construction (8 x 10) suitably printed no more than 36 inches apart in the center of each bag. Each identification mark shall be at least three-fourths inch in height. 

2.2.5.2.2. Time, Date, and Place: Each circular woven bag must have the time, date and place the bag was manufactured legibly printed on each bag. The fabric manufacture must use a one, two or three-digit alpha numeric code showing: 1) where the warp and weft (filling) tapes were produced, 2) where the tapes were woven into circular woven fabric and 3) were the fabric was coated, cut and sewn into bags. One code/location may be used to indicate place when all manufacturing processes occur at the same plant. The numeric date and time codes shall show: 1) day, 2) month, 3) year, 4) hour, 5) minute and 6) second when the bag was produced.

2.2.5.2.3. Recording of Markings: The identification markings shall be placed on record with the JCIBPC. Ink of any color but green shall be used for printing logos and centering marks.

2.2.5.2.4. Fabrication of Bags by Another Firm: Where bags are fabricated by a manufacturer other than the approved manufacturer, the supplier of basic fabric components or their subcontractor, the fabricator's name or trademark shall appear on each bag in addition to the approved fabric manufacturer's name or trademark. The bag fabricator, when other than the approved fabric manufacturer, shall register the name or trademark with the JCIBPC.

2.2.5.3. Inspection and Certification Requirements:

2.2.5.3.1. Responsibility for Inspection: The fabric manufacturer and the supplier are both responsible for performance of all inspection requirements as specified herein. They may use their own or any other facilities suitable for the performance of such inspection requirements, unless such facilities are disapproved by the JCIBPC.

2.2.5.3.2. Right to Perform Inspection or Testing: Reasonable inspection or tests deemed necessary may be performed by the JCIBPC to assure that materials conform to prescribed specifications.

2.2.5.3.3. Inspection or Testing Expense: Expense for such inspection or testing shall be borne by the fabric manufacturer or supplier.

2.2.5.3.4. Certification Required by the JCIBPC:

2.2.5.3.4.1. Submission of Samples: All manufacturers of PET must submit samples to a private testing laboratory selected by the JCIBPC for certification that materials meet all prescribed specifications.

2.2.5.3.4.2. Responsibility for Components and Materials: The fabric manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that fabrics are manufactured, examined and tested in accordance with approved specifications and standards. The bag manufacturers shall be responsible for insuring that specifications for seams, cutting and sizes are met.

2.2.5.3.4.3. Certification of Fabric Furnished: Fabric manufacturers shall satisfy the applicable requirements in section 4.1. Certificates of Analysis (COA) and 4.2. Approved List. In addition, PET fabric manufacturers shall certify to customers that the fabric furnished has been manufactured in a NAFTA country from yarn and resins produced in a NAFTA country for use as cotton bale covers, and meets the material specifications herein, and that the manufacturer is on the JCIBPC's approved list.

2.2.5.4. Test Methods:

2.2.5.4.1. Sample Size: PET material selected for testing will consist of a minimum of ten randomly selected bags. 

2.2.5.4.2. Length: The length of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the length measured along both selvages for panels and along both sides for bags. The length of the sample will be the average of the two measurements rounded to the nearest inch.

2.2.5.4.3. Width: The width of the sample will be measured directly using a suitably graduated device. The sample will be laid out flat on a smooth horizontal surface and the measurements made perpendicular to the lengths.  Three width measurements will be taken on each sample. One measurement will be made at the center of the sample and two other measurements will be made approximately 12 inches in from each end of the sample. The average of the three measurements, rounded to the nearest inch, will be the width.

2.2.5.4.4. Warp Yarn Count: The number of warp ends in a 12-inch width of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the warp yarns per inch.

2.2.5.4.5. Weft (Filling) Yarn Count: The number of weft (filling) ends in a 12-inch length of the sample will be counted. This figure will be divided by 12 to determine the weft (filling) yarns per inch.

2.2.5.4.6. Yarn Dimensions: PET yarn dimensions will be tested as specified in ASTM D3218.

2.2.5.4.7. Inhibitor Concentration: see 2.2.5.1.2.3

2.2.5.4.8. Trace Element: N/A see 2.2.5.1.2.4

2.2.5.4.9. Fabric Weight: The fabric weight per square yard shall be determined using modified ASTM D3776.

2.2.5.4.10. Tensile Strength and Elongation: A minimum of ten randomly selected samples will be tested for tensile strength and elongation to break at standard conditions and in accordance with ASTM D5035.

2.2.5.4.11. Burst Strength: No ASTM standard for woven PET burst strength. Burst strength for woven PET bag is based on cotton bale rebound forces and fabric tensile values.

2.2.5.4.12. Slip Characteristics: ASTM D1894

2.2.5.4.13. Accelerated Weathering:     

2.2.5.4.13.1. Accelerated Weathering 
Methods:
ASTM G155

2.2.5.4.13.2. Breaking Tensile Strength after Accelerated Weathering: At the completion of 300-500 hours exposure to accelerated weathering, the specimens shall be conditioned for 24 hours at the standard conditions specified in ASTM G155. After conditioning, the exposed specimens shall be tested for breaking strength in accordance with ASTM D5035. An average breaking strength of less than 70 percent of the initial minimum breaking strength for weft (filling) yarn direction shall constitute failure of this test ASTM G155.

Footnotes:

3. While bales covered in polyethylene film materials meet requirements for bale loan eligibility, users of polyethylene film packaging materials should be advised that best performance is for use in gins, warehouses and marketing systems which impose limited storage and handling requirements on the bale such as in gin-warehouse shipments which go directly to textile mills or into containers for export. While any packaging material may be damaged, polyethylene film materials are especially subject to damage due to multiple handling, re-concentration or certification, and may be subject to warehouse charges to restore bales to merchantable conditions.