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Guidelines for Preparing References


Only literature that is available through libraries or publicly accessible online may be cited in the Journal of Cotton Science. Material not available through libraries or online, such as personal communications or unpublished data, should be cited as such parenthetically in text. Include the source of data and the date (e.g., R.D. Jackson, personal communication). Material submitted to, but not yet accepted by a journal or other publication, is considered to be unpublished data. Software is not cited in the list of references. Identify software manufacturers, version used, and city and state parenthetically in the text.

Authors are encouraged to cite only significant, published references. Abstracts, theses or dissertations, and secondary materials should be carefully examined by authors before including them in the reference section. Many of these materials are later published in sources that are more easily obtained by readers. If possible, authors should cite the most accessible source of these contributions.

Errors in reference citations commonly arise from inaccurate copying of the bibliographic information during compilation of the reference section after the paper has been written. Reviewers and editors cannot be expected to verify the accuracy of the literature citations, so they remain the responsibility of the authors.

When copying the publication data from a document, authors should verify their final product against the document. The author, title, and other parts of the reference should exactly match those shown on the original document. When in doubt, the author should consult a reference librarian for the correct bibliographic citation of difficult material. Readers should be able to obtain cited references by presenting the list to a librarian.

Errors in consistency occur when authors either (i) do not include a reference cited in the manuscript or have omitted a reference from the text and have left it in the reference list, or (ii) the names and dates in the reference list do not agree with those in the text. Authors are urged to check the alphabetical reference list against the citations in the body of the manuscript before submitting the manuscript for publication.

The name-year system (e.g., Smith, 2000; CSSA, 2001) is used for giving references in the text. For two authors, name both: Jones and Johnson (2000). With three or more authors, use et al.: Smith et al. (2000). For two or more articles by the same author(s) in the same year, designate them as follows: Brown (2000a, b) or Smith et al. (2000a, b).

Each reference to a periodical publication must include, in order, the author(s), year of publication, full title of the article, publication in which it appears, and volume and inclusive page numbers. (Examples follow.)

Reference to a book, bulletin, government document, or conference proceedings must give, as applicable, the author(s), year, title, name of editor(s), edition (if other than the first), location and dates, publisher, city of publication, and number of the volume (if two or more).

Publications without consecutive pagination (i.e., each issue within the volume begins with page 1) should include the issue number in parentheses (e.g., 11(2):5-10).

Arrange the list alphabetically by the surnames of authors. Two or more articles by the same author(s) are listed chronologically; two or more in the same year are indicated by the letters a, b, c, etc. All single-authored articles of a given individual should precede multiple-author articles of which the individual is first author. Entries with the same first author (e.g., Shotwell below) should be organized by alphabetizing surnames of succeeding co-authors, and then by year when the name is repeated exactly (see entries 3 and 4 below).

  1. Shotwell, O.L. 2000.
  2. Shotwell, O.L., M.L. Goulden, and C.W. Hesseltine. 1998.
  3. Shotwell, L. L., C.W. Hesseltine, and M.L. Goulden. 1999.
  4. Shotwell, L.L., C.W. Hesseltine, and M.L. Goulden. 2000.
  5. Shotwell, O. L., C.W. Hesseltine, E. E. Vandegraft, and M.L. Goulden. 2000.
  6. Shotwell, O.L., W.F. Kwolek, M.L. Goulden, L.K. Jackson, and C.W. Hesseltine. 1997.
  7. Shotwell, O.L., and D.W. Zwieg. 2000.

Do not capitalize the titles of articles or bulletins, except proper names and the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle. Capitalize the names of books. (See below for examples of literature references.)

Use acronyms or commonly understood abbreviations for organizations (e.g., ASA, TVA, ICRISAT, U.S. Gov. Print. Office) when used as publishers, or for the text reference (e.g., CIMMYT, 2001). Spell them out when they are used as authors. Do not abbreviate state names except after a city; then use zip code abbreviations (e.g., Madison, WI).

Periodical titles should be abbreviated as given in the current edition of Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index.

A dissertation that is available on microfilm or in abstract form has a retrieval number and that publication data must be given in its reference, if available. Check with your reference librarian or contact University Microfilms in Ann Arbor, MI (1-800-521-3042).

Consult Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors for examples of the various types of references. Some common types are shown below.

Standard Journal Article
Cook, C.G., A.F. Robinson, and L.N. Namken. 1997. Tolerance to Rotylenchulus reniformis and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 in high-yielding breeding lines of upland cotton. J. Nematol. 29:320-326.

Jones, J.E., J.I. Dickson, W. Aguillard, W.D. Caldwell, S.H. Moore, R.L. Hutchinson, and R.L. Rogers. 1991. Registration of ‘LA 887’ cotton. Crop Sci. 31:1701.

Gliessman, S.R. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, MI.

Lal, R., J.M. Kimble, R.F. Follett, and C.V. Cole. 1998. The Potential of U.S. Cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, MI.

Chapter in Book
Zobel, R.W. 1996. Genetic control of root systems. p. 21-30. In Y. Waisel et al. (ed.) Plant Roots: The Hidden Half. 2nd ed.Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.

McCarty, J.C. Jr., and R.G. Percy. Genes from exotic germplasm and their use in cultivar improvement in Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L. p. 65-79 In J.N. Jenkins and S. Saha (ed.) Genetic Improvement of Cotton. Science Publ., Enfield, NH.

Article Without an Identifiable Author (Avoid use if possible.)
Anonymous. 1998. Computer programs from your radio? Agri-Marketing 22(6):66.

General Magazine Article
Baumann, P. 2001. New herbicide gives producers more options. Cotton Farming. April. p. 26.

Conolly, P.J. 2001. Security protects bottom line. InfoWorld 23(15):47-48.

Conference, Symposium, Workshop Proceedings, or Transactions
Include page numbers, editors of peer-reviewed issues, title, location and dates, and publisher's name and location.

Constable, G.A. 2000. Breeding and cultivar development of cotton for specific cropping systems. p. 3-9. In New frontiers in cotton research. Proc. World Cotton Res. Conf.-2, Athens, Greece. 6-12 Sept. 1998. Petridis, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Hutmacher, R.B., C.J. Phene, K.R. Davis, W.R. Detar, and J.E. Ayars. 1995. Improvements in water use efficiency in irrigated cotton: Factors influencing choices in irrigation systems. p. 93-102. In G.A. Constable and N.W. Forrester (ed.) Challenging the future. Proc. World Cotton Res. Conf.- 1, Brisbane, Australia. 14-17 Feb. 1994. CSIRO, Narrabri, NSW, Australia.

Jacobsen, K.R., Y.-L. Hsieh, J.A. Jernstedt, and W.F. Lalor. 2000. Origin, structure and properties of non-dyeing lint fibers: II. Ginning and lint-cleaner effect on dyeing properties of lint fibers. p. 693-694. In Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., San Antonio, TX. 4-8 Jan. 2000. Natl. Cotton Counc. Am., Memphis, TN.

Maraqa, M.A. 1995. Transport of dissolved volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone. Ph.D. diss. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (Diss. Abstr. 96-05907).

State Publication
Jordan, D.L., and A.C. York. 1999. Weed management in peanuts. p. 28-53. In D.L. Jordan (ed.) 1999 peanut information. Publ. AG-331. North Carolina Coop. Ext. Serv., Raleigh, NC.

Oosterhuis, D.M., and D. Zhao. 1999. Field evaluation of plant growth regulators. In D.M. Oosterhuis (ed.) Proc. 1999 Cotton Res. Meet. and Summar. Cotton Res. in Prog. Spec. Rep. 193. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville, AR.

Shelby, P.P. 1996. Cotton production in Tennessee. p. 3-7. In Cotton production in Tennessee. Publ. PB1514. Univ. ofTennessee Agric. Ext. Serv., Knoxville, TN.

Online References
Laughlin, D. and S. R. Spurlock. 2002. Mississippi State Budget Generator Users Guide (version 5.5) [Online]. Available at (verified 12 Dec. 2003).

Jones, M.A., and C. E. Snipes.  1999.  Tolernace of transgenic cotton to tropical applications of glyphosate.  J. Cotton Sci. 3:19-26 [Online].  Available at  (verified 1 Jan. 2005).