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Combined Lint Cleaning System PM2.5 Emission Factors and Rates for Cotton Gins: Method 201A Combination PM10 and PM2.5 Sizing Cyclones
Michael D. Buser, Derek P. Whitelock, J. Clif Boykin, and Gregory A. Holt
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This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because current EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors did not exist. The objective of this study was the development of PM2.5 emission factors for cotton gin combined lint cleaning systems based on the EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location (geographically diverse), 2) industry representative production capacity, 3) typical processing systems, and 4) equipped with properly designed and maintained 1D3D cyclones. Three of the seven gins had 1st and 2nd stage lint cleaning systems where the exhaust airstreams were combined. In terms of capacity, the three gins were typical of the industry, averaging 33.6 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A test criteria. Also, other test runs included in the analyses had cotton lint fibers that collected in the ≤ 10 µm and/or ≤ 2.5 µm samples. This larger lint material can impact the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. Average measured combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factor based on the three tests (nine total test runs) was 0.014 kg/227-kg bale (0.030 lb/500-lb bale). The combined lint cleaning system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.128 kg/bale (0.281 lb/bale) and 0.233 kg/bale (0.513 lb/bale), respectively. The combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission rate from test averages ranged from 0.17 to 0.80 kg/h (0.37-1.75 lb/h). System average PM10 emission factors were higher and system average total particulate emission factors were lower than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The ratios of combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 to total particulate, PM2.5 to PM10, and PM10 to total particulate were 5.9, 10.8, and 54.8%, respectively.