Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitioned the total variation for 26 traits into environment (E), genotype (G) and genotype X environment (GE) variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It evaluated 26 traits and 56 year-location environments. There were four yield traits, five yield components, six traditional breeder-geneticists (BG) fiber traits, seven High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) fiber traits, and four gossypol traits. Yield variance components for lint, seed, oil, and N were similar with an average of 87, 5, and 8% of the total variance due to E, G, and GE, respectively. Lint%s E, G, and GE were 57, 33, and 10%, respectively and were similar to oil% E, G, and GE which were 53, 37, and 10%, respectively. Length, strength, and micronaire’s G components for BG fiber was 28, 52, and 16%, respectively. For the HVI samples, G was similar with 36, 48, and 18%, respectively. Average G for total gossypol and its two isomers, plus (+) and minus (-) was 36, 47, and 29%, respectively. The plus (+) percent of total gossypol was 17, 72, and 11% for E, G, and GE, respectively. This was the lowest E% and highest G% of all the 26 traits. The results of this study suggested that during the last 50 yrs, little changed in E, G, and GE variance components occurred.