Staple Soil-Applied Herbicide Systems for Georgia Cotton

J. S. Richburg III, J. W. Wilcut, and G. G. Hammes


Research conducted in 1992 at Plains and in 1992 and 1993 at Tifton, Georgia evaluated soil-applied preemergence (PRE) Staple systems for weed control efficacy and cotton yield. Weed species evaluated included Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), Ipomoea morningglories, prickly sida (Sida spinosa), and sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia). All plots received a preplant incorporated (PPI) treatment of Treflan at 0.75 lb ai/ac. All other herbicide applications were made PRE. Staple was applied alone at 0.031, 0.047, 0.063, and 0.125 lb ai/ac. Cotoran was applied at 1.5 lb ai/ac and in a factorial arrangement with Staple at 0.000, 0.031, and 0.047 lb/ac. Karmex was applied at 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 lb ai/ac and in a factorial arrangement with Staple at 0.000, 0.031, and 0.047 lb/ac. Zorial was applied at 1.5 lb ai/ac and in a factorial arrangement with Staple at 0.031, 0.047, and 0.063 lb/ac. Cotoran at 1.5 + Zorial at 1.5 lb/ac and Treflan alone PPI were included for comparative purposes. Late-season visual ratings are the only efficacy data discussed.

Staple at all rates provided excellent (>96%) prickly sida control. Cotoran, Zorial, Cotoran + Zorial, and Karmex gave 69, 98, 97 and (<39%) prickly sida control, respectively. Staple at 0.031, 0.047, 0.063 and 0.125 lb/ac controlled Florida beggarweed 55, 39, 69, and 94%, respectively. However, Staple at 0.031 or 0.047 lb/ac plus either Cotoran, Karmex at 0.50 lb/ac, or Zorial controlled Florida beggarweed at least 92%. Cotoran or Karmex at 1.0 lb/ac controlled Florida beggarweed 100%. Staple at 0.063 lb/ac controlled Ipomoea morningglories 83% at Tifton, but control was <50% at Plains. This lower control at Plains can be explained by Staple's effectiveness on entireleaf (Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula) and ivyleaf (Ipomoea hederacea) morningglories which were the predominant species at Tifton and poor control from Staple on tall morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea) which was the predominant specie at Plains. Cotoran, Zorial, and Cotoran + Zorial gave <66% Ipomoea morningglory control at Plains. Karmex gave <52% Ipomoea morningglory control at Plains, but 63% control with 1.0 lb/ac at Tifton. Staple at 0.125 lb ai/acre controlled sicklepod 65%. Staple at 0.031 lb/ac + Cotoran or Zorial, or Karmex at 0.50 lb/ac provided sicklepod control which was statistically equal to Cotoran + Zorial (80%). Zorial controlled Florida beggarweed and sicklepod 64 and 59%, respectively.

Each experiment was planted into a dry seed bed and irrigated up with 1 inch of water in 1992. Sufficient soil moisture was present in 1993 at planting for cotton emergence. Crop injury was minimal (<7%) with all treatments. There was no significant increase in crop injury with any tank mixture.

All treatments yielded higher than Treflan alone (350 lb/ac). Seed cotton yields from Staple alone at 0.031 lb/ac were 820 lb/ac and increased to 1,450 lb/ac with Staple alone at 0.125 lb/ac. Cotoran, Zorial, and Cotoran + Zorial treatments yielded 1,390, 990, and 1,610 lb/ac, respectively. Yields from Karmex alone at 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 lb/ac were 940, 1,150, and 1,250 lb/ac, respectively. Staple at 0.031 lb/ac + Cotoran yielded 1,700 lb/ac which was higher than any yield from Staple or Cotoran applied alone. The two highest yielding treatments were Staple at 0.047 + Cotoran and Staple at 0.063 lb/ac + Zorial, which yielded 1,730 and 1,730 lb/ac, respectively. Staple at 0.047 plus Karmex at 0.50 or 1.0 lb/ac yielded the highest (1,440 and 1,490 lb/ac, respectively) for the Staple + Karmex combinations. In general, the highest yields from tank mixtures with Staple were obtained with Staple at 0.031 lb/ac + Cotoran, Staple at 0.047 lb/ac + Karmex at 1.0 lb/ac, and Staple at 0.047 lb/ac + Zorial.

Reprinted from Proceedings of the 1994 Beltwide Cotton Conferences pg. 1704
©National Cotton Council, Memphis TN

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Document last modified Sunday, Dec 6 1998