The government plans of the Soviet regime came true and Uzbekistan produced cotton not only sufficient enough to meet requirements of the domestic cotton industry but also to export for the sake of foreign exchange. Now, cotton growing conditions have changed significantly in Uzbekistan. The Aral sea has lost its volume by 75% in the last thirty years and salts drifted from the dried seabed are causing a salinity problem. The climatic conditions have also changed, squeezing the cotton growing season by weeks. The Government of Uzbekistan has decided to attain self-sufficiency in food grains by replacing some cotton with food grains, mainly wheat. Cotton is heavily fertilized and biological control of insects has proved its worth. Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae has to be cured to save losses in yield. Growth regulators are not commonly used. Good defoliants are not available but hand picking is increasing due to various reasons. While the production will remain around 1.5 million tons the quality of cotton is expected to improve in the next few years.