Preharvest cotton crop sampling has successfully predicted crop length, micronaire, strength, and yield per acre on the Texas Southern High Plains, Coastal Bend and Upper Coast areas. Results show large year-to-year variation in average boll weights for seed cotton, lint, and seed, and in percent lint. Most years on the Texas High Plains, irrigated fields produce higher yields, heavier bolls, and longer fiber length than dryland fields. The spread between irrigated and dryland yield, boll weights, and length widen during years of low subsoil moisture and lower than average growing season rainfall such as 1993, 1994 and 1995. Stressful conditions appear to lower seed weight relatively more than lint weight. From year to year, micronaire of dryland and irrigated cotton move up and down together with irrigated fields having slightly lower micronaire. Strength has shown a steady increase over the past twelve years with very little difference between irrigated and dryland strength for any given year. Early September subjective observation of boll size, stage of maturity, moisture stress, and level of irrigation relates well to resulting boll weights, fiber properties, and yield potential. Likewise, boll weights and quality variations exist in and between the Texas Coastal Bend and Upper Coast areas.