Investigation of new cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production strategies such as alternative planting patterns in conjunction with plant density is needed to improve yield and profitability. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of three cotton planting patterns (19 or 38 cm twin rows and 97 cm single rows) at five plant densities (7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 plants m-2) on cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality. Planting pattern did not influence any plant structure or yield variables, seed cotton or lint yield, lint percentage, lint or seed index, and fiber quality. Plant density did not influence the first sympodial branch on the main axis. Monopodial branch number increased with decreasing plant density. The 7 plants m-2 density produced 13.8 sympodia on the main axis and highest first position boll at node 10.5. Total nodes and plant height were greatest for the 7 plants m-2 density. As plant density increased, total bolls per plant decreased. First position boll retention was inversely related to plant densities. Seed cotton and lint yield were greatest for the 11 plants m-2 plant density, but this only differed from the 7 plants m-2 density. Plant density did not influence fiber length, micronaire, strength, or uniformity. Based on these data, seeding cotton in either twin-row planting pattern does not adversely affect cotton growth, yield, or fiber quality. However, cotton plant density had a strong impact on measured variables.