TAES at Lubbock has studied the effect of foliar application of vanadyl organic salts on cotton growth and yield since 1985. This paper reviews the literature on plant growth and metabolic responses to vanadium. Vanadium is a naturally occurring trace element in the biosphere and is considered to be an essential element for many animal systems. The essentially of vanadium for plant growth has yet to be delineated, however, numerous reports of enhanced plant growth from application of vanadium have been reported in the literature. Vanadium is believed to be involved in electron transport between PSII to PSI in the Hill reaction of photosynthesis. Numerous field trials have been conducted at TAES Lubbock and on producers fields on the Southern High Plains of Texas. Application of vanadyl organic salts at a rate of .05 lbs/a prior to and at early bloom can result in enhanced overall early season growth and fruit set. The lint yield response to vanadium application has varied widely across studies and years. In general a greater response has been achieved under conditions of high fertility and water inputs. The percent lint yield increase from application of vanadium at the above time and rate have ranged from 0 to over 25% with an average lint yield increase of 50 lbs/a. The 1993 season was an exceptional year for irrigated cotton production on the Southern High Plains of Texas. The average lint yield increase from vanadium application in 1993 was approximately 70 lbs/a.