Integrated pest management (IPM) is the most logical and ecologically sound approach to insect population control. Since insecticides are generally used in IPM programs only when other control measures (biological, cultural, physical, regulatory, etc.) fail to keep pest populations below economic thresholds, the availability of effective insecticides is imperative for these programs to succeed. The number of insecticides is decreasing due to difficulties in discovery of new chemistry, the exorbitant cost of registration and re-registration, cancellations of labels and the development of resistance. Insecticide resistance management (IRM) offers the best opportunity to forestall the development of insecticide resistance, the only one of these factors manageable by cotton producers. Furthermore, IRM is supported by the agrochemical industry. IRM is presently being practiced against cotton pests (primarily Heliothis and Helicoverpa spp. ) in Australia , Columbia, Egypt, Israel, the United States, and Zimbabwe. IRM programs for the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas appear to have been successful in slowing the development of resistance to pyrethroids. All IPM and cotton production practices that directly or indirectly affect the need for and use of insecticides must be focused toward reduced reliance on chemical control. Furthermore, it is imperative that the use of insecticides follow some logical and biological based system in order to conserve this declining resource.