In South Texas temperature and moisture stress often are the cause of yield reductions and lower fiber quality. A program to select cultivars with improved lint yields and fiber quality (primarily strength) has been underway for a number of years. Enhancements must occur with consideration given to early harvest and without loss of other desired qualities present in currently used cultivars. Screening of commercial lines, F2 materials, selected cultivars and pima cotton were compared with widely-grown, regional varieties. Yield enhancements of 75-200 lbs per acre are possible through new genotypes. Fiber strength can be increased at least two grams/tex without compromising lint yields.