Researchers have recently documented the presence of pyrethroid resistance in field populations of the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The potential impact of wide-spread resistance on profitable cotton production necessitates concern and action by cotton growers. Since resistance levels seem to decline when selection pressure is removed, growers may have an excellent opportunity to preserve the use of pyrethroids by utilizing conservative management approaches. A management plan for the Mid-South has recently been recommended by a cooperating group of scientists from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. This management plan is similar to those drafted by Australian cotton growers for Heliothis Zea era and proposed by Texas scientists for H. virescens. The proposed management strategy advocates the use of pyrethroids for Heliothis spp. control during mid- to late-season, recommends the use of insecticide combinations, and encourages early crop maturity to avoid late season control problems. Growers are strongly urged to base control decisions on careful monitoring of plant fruit retention and insect pest densities.