A three-year study of ultra-narrow row (UNR) cotton production was conducted at the University of Arkansas Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser during the 1995 through 1997 growing seasons. The study compared UNR cotton with cotton produced in 38-inch rows. As expected, the plants in the UNR system were shorter with fewer nodes and fewer bolls per plant than in the conventional system. Higher seedcotton yields were observed for UNR two of the three years, but lower gin turnout offset part of the increase. Of the HVI fiber properties, only micronaire was significantly affected, consistently lower for the UNR cotton. However, Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) analyses indicated more visible foreign matter, higher short fiber content and more neps associated with the UNR system. Production costs were higher for UNR cotton in this study, but omitting the seed treatment would have had a large effect on the UNR system's cost. Breakeven prices for both systems were below the season average price two of the three years, even allowing for a crop rent, suggesting a potential for profit.