Relationships between cotton fiber structure/morphology and strength have been examined for a wide range of physical and genetic properties. In particular, the relationships between the single fiber (MANTIS) strength and various bundle strength measurements including Stelometer and HVI were determined. In addition, relationships between the single fiber strength and the fiber physical/dimensional properties as obtained from the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and image analysis were determined. Tapered bundle strength as measured by the HVI correlated well with Stelometer flat bundle tenacity (R2 = 0.806) but with a significant offset and non-unity slope. The average MANTIS breaking load could be predicted (R2 = 0.845) by a linear combination of the average fiber wall area and perimeter as measured by AFIS. Both the Stelometer tenacity (R2 = 0.835) and HVI breaking strength (R2 = 0.720) are linearly proportional to the ratio of the MANTIS breaking load to the square of the projected ribbon width determined by the MANTIS electro-optical sensor. Both the Stelometer tenacity (R2 = 0.941) and HVI breaking strength (R2 = 0.783) can be expressed by a multi-linear relationship that includes the MANTIS breaking load and the projected fiber ribbon width.