The first commercial releases of transgenic cotton heralded the entry into a new era in cotton breeding with considerable fanfare. Although biotechnology methodology is still evolving at a fast pace, many of the questions remain the same. What gene will do what we want, and how can we control when, where and how much a transgene is expressed? How stable is the transgene and will the plant perform well in the field? These questions, and more, were the topics under discussion at the Cotton Biotechnology Workshop held during the Beltwide Conference. An overview of the steps involved in the development of transgenic cotton, including mention of experimental limitations and potential pitfalls of the technology, is presented in the text.