In 1995, there were approximately 15,889,000 acres of cotton (Upland and Pima) harvested in the U.S. with an average yield of 1.15 bales per acre (480-lb bales) amounting to a 18,325,700 bale production (USDA--December 11, 1995 report). Harvested acreage increased 18.6% but total production decreased 6.8% compared to 1994, indicating a yield decrease of about 17%. Arthropod pests reduced overall yield by 11.08%, one of the highest ever, in spite of control measures which cost an average of $57.93 per acre. The bollworm/budworm complex was still the number one pest in the U.S. with a yield reduction of 3.97%. Eighty-two percent (82%) of the acreage was infested with bollworm/budworm in 1995, requiring 2.4 applications of insecticide per acre. Beet armyworms were second in 1995, reducing yields by 1.68%. Boll weevils were a close third at 1.66% reduction in 1995. These pests infested about 62% of the country's cotton crop and required about 2.0 applications of insecticide per acre. Aphids were the fourth most severe pest at 1.09%, and Lygus a severe pest in the far west in 1995, dropped to fifth place at 1.02% reduction. Spider mites, whiteflies, and thrips were also costly pests in 1995. Total cost of management and loss to insects to the 1995 crop exceeded $1.68 billion (see M. R. Williams, these proceedings).