Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important socioeconomic crop throughout most of the southern U.S. In Texas, cotton is the lead cash crop and its productivity is often limited by abiotic stress events such as drought and elevated ambient temperatures. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applications triggered by canopy temperature and forecasted ambient temperatures on field-grown cotton plants. Yield and crop morphological responses to 1-MCP applications were investigated in field studies conducted during the summers of 2012 to 2014 at the Texas A&M University Field Laboratory in Burleson County, TX. Positive effects of 1-MCP were found for fruit retention in 2013 and 2014 for both irrigated and dryland studies; however, a negative impact was found in the 2012 irrigated study. By harvest, 1-MCP applications had no effect on final cotton yield or fiber quality parameters. Applications of 1-MCP affected some morphological characteristics of cotton plants; however, it did not improve crop yield.