A survey of four questions was sent to members of cotton ginning associations in Australia and the U.S. to determine what issues and problems need to be addressed and where their respective research institutions should focus their time, money, and energy. Responses to each question were similar between the two countries as both have highly mechanized approaches to production, harvesting, and ginning. Thus, issues associated with automation, labor, moisture, fiber quality, utilization of cotton byproducts/waste, and plastic contamination were raised. Responses that differed between the two countries were related to issues associated with the adoption or lack of adoption of certain technologies. The prime example is the adoption of the new John Deere onboard round-module building harvester, which the Australian industry has, in a relatively short period, implemented into its production and ginning systems. In contrast, the U.S. industry is starting to scale up adoption of this technology and as such is experiencing the challenges that come with the implementation of a new technology. Consequently, U.S. gins rated the handling of the plastic wrap used by the onboard module harvester of greater importance than the Australian industry, which has more experience with this issue. Overall, the survey should assist in focusing and coordinating the research efforts of both countries in addressing research and development priorities for their respective industries.